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Sperm analysis instruments

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Sperm analysis instruments

Gifs cortos de porno adolescente. SQA-Vision | The Ultimate Automated Semen Analysis Solution for Hospitals, MES developed the SQA-Vision as an intuitive tool for fertility screening. Keywords: laboratory practice, male infertility, semen Sperm analysis instruments. The appendix contains much useful information relating to equipment, stock. SCA® CASA System for semen analysis allows the accurate, repetitive and automatic assessment Sperm analysis instruments.

Useful tool for a manual counting of any cellular sample. Semen analysis testing assesses a man's fertility through technique involves holding a special vibrating instrument to a man's penis.

The aim. American Society for Reproductive Medicine.) Key Words: Male infertility, semen analysis, sperm concentration, motility, SQA-V. Semen analysis is the first tool a.

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Sperm analysis instruments Semen test following WHO laboratory manual. Suitable for hospitalsfertility clinics and labs to evaluate cases of male infertility and other practices. Analyses all kind of animal sperm: Mammalsbirdsreptilesamphibiansfish and invertebrates.

Sperm analysis instruments

Specialized Sperm analysis instruments for toxicology centers working with mouse and rat. System constantly updated to include the ultimate state-of-the art technology and operating Sperm analysis instruments available.

Customized reports are supplied by Microptic, including letterhead, and any required results in the contents. Information request. New design New interface design much more likeable and user-friendly. Windows 10 Compatible with the last operating systems from Microsoft. Internal Quality Control Verification of the calibration and analysis settings. Microscope with phase contrast to visualize the sample. See hardware requirements.

The most integral application for human andrology and IVF labs, sperm banks, fertility clinics, hospitals, Sperm analysis instruments. See editions comparison. Maintenance Annual maintenance service for software updates and technical support.

Customized reports Custom reporting service that offers the ability to customize the report template. Documents and support. Sperm Analysis Continue reading Accurate and fast assessment, manually unattainable Hyperactivation: Automatic and rigorous assessment, far away to be attained by subjective observation Morphology: It recommends the use of a chamber of at least 20 microns deep for this type of analysis, as shallower chambers may impede sperm movement.

This section describes a simple and easy technique for detecting motility without introducing errors. This section describes the use of the eosin—nigrosin test to determine sperm vitality, an aspect of semen analysis that is important but often omitted by many laboratories.

Sperm analysis instruments

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This is accompanied by very nice pictures of spermatozoa, both positively and negatively stained. Another vitality test that is included in this edition is the hypo-osmotic swelling HOS test. This procedure here becoming increasingly useful, not only in detecting the vitality of Sperm analysis instruments spermatozoa in semen analysis but also in determining the selection of Sperm analysis instruments for ICSI.

Counting spermatozoa is often considered the most important part of semen analysis. However, it is in fact only one part, and all the facets of semen quality must be examined if the analysis is to be of any substantive value to the clinician. The manual describes several types of chambers as well as each of the grids.

Bangoli Xxxbf Watch Tiny nude girls in bikinis Video Malayia Sex. A needle is then inserted into a suitable area of the scrotum and sperm are aspirated into the needle. The procedure is usually performed under local anaesthetic; Percutaneous epididymal sperm extraction PESE: This is the simplest surgical sperm retrieval procedure and is performed under local anaesthetic, however does not always result in a sufficient quantity of sperm being retrieved; Fine needle aspiration FNA: It is a simple technique however generally results in only a few sperm being retrieved, meaning that sperm cannot be cryopreserved for future use; Testicular sperm extraction TESE - Open Testicular Biopsy: The scrotum and testes are cut open, before testicular tissues are cut away and examined for sperm, which, if present can be extracted. Semen analysis testing investigates a number of characteristics of the seminal fluid and the sperm it contains including: Volume of ejaculate: The concentration of sperm per ml of ejaculate can then be calculated; Sperm motility: The semen sample is therefore examined to determine what proportion of sperm is motile and to what extent they move. Sperm can be classified as rapidly progressive i. The shape of the head, tail and mid-piece of up to sperm will be examined and their details recorded so that the proportion of morphologically normal sperm in the ejaculate can be calculated; pH: Normal seminal fluid will change to watery liquid within minutes of ejaculation; Vitality: Sperm are generally protected from these antibodies whilst in the testicles, however in men who have previously experienced testicular surgery or trauma, sperm antibodies may be found in the seminal fluid. In other cases the presence of sperm antibodies is unexplained. How is an abnormal semen analysis result determined? Oligozoospermia may result from environmental conditions e. In cases of unexplained infertility , intrauterine insemination is often instituted as first line treatment , however recent evidence from a large randomised controlled trial demonstrates that intrauterine insemination with or without ovarian stimulation is no more effective than expectant management waiting and seeing in terms of achieving conception ; Oligozoospermia: The likelihood of a successful intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcome are however reduced when the injected sperm is immotile; Teratozoospermia: Thus men with this condition have little chance of conceiving naturally, through intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilisation. Treatment with intracytoplasmic sperm injection is therefore indicated in these men; Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia: Where these treatments fail, the retrieval of sperm using surgical methods may enable successful intrauterine insemination, in vitro fertilisation or intracytoplasmic sperm injection; 4 Aspermia: Sperm preparation for assisted reproduction techniques Following retrieval, sperm will be taken to a laboratory for analysis or preparation for assisted reproductive techniques. The most common semen preparation techniques are: Discontinuous density gradient: Fresh semen is covered with a medium and placed in a cylinder which is laid at a 45 o C angle. Motile sperm in the ejaculate will then swim up to the top of the tube, leaving immotile sperm and debris in the lower part of the cylinder. Male infertility: The case for continued research. Med J Aust. Hirsch A. Male subfertility. Cambridge University Press; Clinical guideline: Assessment and treatment for people with fertility problems [online]. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Available from URL: Clomifene citrate or unstimulated intrauterine insemination compared with expectant management for unexplained infertility: Pragmatic randomised controlled trial. Malter HE, Cohen J. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection: Technical aspects. Current Practices and Controversies in Assisted Reproduction [online]. World Health Organisation; [cited 30 December ]. Methods of semen collection not based on masturbation or surgical sperm retrieval. Hum Reprod Update. Location of semen collection and time interval from collection to use for intrauterine insemination. Fertil Steril. Shafik A. The mechanism of ejaculation: The glans-vasal and urethromuscular reflexes. Arch Androl. Functional electrical stimulation for ejaculation. A prospective study of multiple needle biopsies versus a single open biopsy for testicular sperm extraction in men with non-obstructive azoospermia. Hum Reprod. Khalifa Y, Grudzinskas JG. Minimally invasive surgery for male subfertility. Tareq Sharif , Alamal Fertility Centre. Mictoptic S. L is a professional Comp. I do recommend SCA systems for the easiest, accurate, and configurable systems. Eventually, Microptic S. Shadi Alnakhaleh , Roche. I recommend this product Hiva Alipour , Aalborg University. Easy to use and very good quality report. We are using the SCA systems for 5 years and still ongoing. Before that period we used a glass camera for semen analysis and manual counting. As a lab manager I will share that the SCA system is really reliable and independent. It gives a good idea about what is the real concentration, motility and velocity of the spermatozoa in the semen sample; the morphology of every single spermatozoa, using strict criteria; the percentage of DNA fragmentation in sperm. The systems has good quality, reliable and repeated results and user friendly. Microptic S. L is a professional Company and always gives immediate help and advice. Go ahead, you are a great team! We use cookies to improve your experience. If you continue, we consider that you accept their use. Read more. Automatic and rigorous assessment, far away to be attained by subjective observation. Quality control: The use of statistics in this context is clearly described and simple to understand. It must always be remembered that the execution of a semen analysis is a skilled procedure and that proper training in this exercise is very important. It is clear, however, that training helps to prevent spurious results and poor quality control. In addition, it includes a section about reference values in relation to semen variables. Although these reference ranges are useful for epidemiological studies relating to men's health, it is dangerous to assume that they indicate either fertility or infertility except when they are at the extremes of the range. As Eliasson 2 pointed out nearly 40 years ago, conception relates to probabilities rather than reference ranges. Put another way, conception is related to probability not to the certainty that reference ranges would seem to indicate. It must also be remembered that controlling both male as well as female fertility is female fecundity—and this cannot be assessed from a semen analysis. It should also be pointed out again that semen analysis alone is a poor discriminator of fertility and cannot, except on relatively rare occasions, provide a diagnosis. That is, an abnormal semen analysis is not a diagnosis; it is just a physical sign. Thus, comments on the treatment of patients with an abnormal sperm count, even that below the fifth percentile, are misleading, given that a diagnosis cannot definitively be given in the laboratory. Overall, this edition of the WHO manual is very much improved relative to the earlier edition. It should be the standard reference manual for all laboratories that carry out semen analysis and similar procedures. The editors should be congratulated on producing such an improved version. Journal List Asian J Androl v. Asian J Androl. Published online Jan Anne M. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract This article reviews the latest edition of the World Health Organization's manual on semen analysis, a comprehensive instructional guide. Introduction For many years now the World Health Organization WHO manuals have served as a primary resource for seminal fluid analysis procedures. Part 1: Semen analysis This section begins with an overview of the process of semen analysis and points out that fertility or sperm production cannot be assessed on the basis of a single sample of semen. Collection of the semen sample In the section relating to the collection of a semen sample, the authors state that the sample should be collected in a room near the laboratory. Evaluation of the physical properties of semen This section examines the assessment of the physical properties of semen, such as liquefaction, viscosity, semen volume and seminal pH. Determination of sperm motility The next part of this section involves the assessment of sperm motility. Determination of sperm vitality This section describes the use of the eosin—nigrosin test to determine sperm vitality, an aspect of semen analysis that is important but often omitted by many laboratories. Counting spermatozoa in a semen sample Counting spermatozoa is often considered the most important part of semen analysis. Counting non-sperm cells The identification of white blood cells in a semen sample is important for the clinician. Assessment of sperm morphology This aspect of semen analysis is usually considered the most difficult one, and the manual properly describes it in greater detail. Testing for the presence of anti-sperm antibodies This area also makes up an important part of a semen analysis, and standard tests such as the 'mixed antiglobulin reaction MAR ' test and the immuno-bead test are described in detail. Optional procedures This section includes what are described as 'optional' procedures, including the calculation of many indices, mostly in the area of sperm morphology. Part 2: Sperm preparation The separation of spermatozoa from seminal plasma is now an important aspect of the work of an andrology laboratory. Part 3: Quality assurance This section describes the problem of quality assurance in relation to semen samples..

As many counting chambers are now available and they are generally expensive, the section on their care is an important and welcome addition to the manual. The very good description of the use of these chambers and the methods for calculating sperm count Sperm analysis instruments valuable.

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Today, too few laboratories take enough care in the diagnosis of azoospermia, and centrifugation is rarely carried out. The identification of white blood cells in a semen sample is important for the clinician. As it is often impossible to differentiate these cells Sperm analysis instruments germinal cells, the Sperm analysis instruments explanation of the counting of these cells is valuable.

This aspect of semen analysis is usually considered the source difficult one, and the manual properly describes it in greater detail. The concept of normal spermatozoa is discussed, and the staining of slides is described in some detail.

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The preferred stains are named, and the make-up of these stains is also included. Also included in this section is a methodology for the use of the peroxidase Sperm analysis instruments, which positively identifies white blood cells. Unlike many of the earlier editions of the manual, there is now a large collection of photomicrographs depicting many of the morphological abnormalities of spermatozoa, germinal cells and white blood cells, as well as a group of morphologically diverse spermatozoa that are considered to be 'normal'.

This inclusion will be of great value to many newcomers in the field Sperm analysis instruments semen analysis, and the editors of the manual are to be congratulated on their careful selection of these illustrations. Sperm analysis instruments area also makes up an important part of a semen analysis, and standard tests such as the 'mixed antiglobulin reaction MAR ' test and the immuno-bead test are described in detail.

Teenfilipina fuck Watch Amateur milf casting creampie Video Sex schagen. This is because the best quality portion of the semen is ejaculated first and may not be captured using this technique, but also because vaginal fluid can affect the quality of the semen sample. For men who do not produce ejaculate, vibration or electro stimulation techniques are often effective in inducing ejaculation. They are relatively simple techniques which do not require anaesthetic, however they do require the assistance of a health professional and special medical equipment. The aim is to induce an ejaculation by stimulating ejaculatory reflexes. Electrical impulses are then sent through the probe to stimulate sensitive nerves in this region, which can induce an erection and ejaculation. When other sperm retrieval techniques fail, there are several surgical methods which can be used to retrieve sperm from either the epididymis or testicles. They are:. There is currently insufficient evidence to determine which of the sperm retrieval techniques have the best outcomes in terms of pregnancy rates or patient satisfaction. It involves examining a sample of freshly retrieved semen under a microscope and by conducting a range of tests. Semen analysis is most commonly performed manually, however computer assisted semen analysis can increase the accuracy of the assessment if specialised equipment is available. Microscopic investigation involves a highly trained professional placing a small amount of sperm onto a slide and examining it under a microscope. The results are compared to reference values published by the World Health Organisation. Semen analysis testing investigates a number of characteristics of the seminal fluid and the sperm it contains including:. The results of a semen analysis test will be compared to reference values determined by the World Health Organisation WHO. When conducting semen analysis testing it is important to remember that assessment of the entire population of sperm in a sample of ejaculate does not determine whether or not a man has the capacity to conceive naturally i. A man with low sperm concentration still has the capacity to conceive naturally, although his likelihood of conception will be reduced compared to a man with a higher concentration of sperm. When one or more of the test values fall outside the WHO criteria, a repeat semen analysis test is usually conducted ideally 3 months after the first test to confirm the result. Semen quality can vary considerably over time, due to the health, lifestyle and environmental conditions of the man whose semen is being analysed. Based on the results of semen analysis testing, a man will be given a sperm classification, using the following standard terminology:. Following retrieval, sperm will be taken to a laboratory for analysis or preparation for assisted reproductive techniques. As a semen sample potentially contains dangerous viruses e. Sperm preparation is a procedure in which the most viable sperm in an ejaculate i. This is because these components of the suspension are thought to impair the fertilisation process. Following separation, the motile sperm are re-suspended to form a solution with a high concentration of sperm. There are a range of techniques which can be used to prepare sperm and the technique used will depend upon the assisted reproductive technique procedure and the quality of the semen sample. The procedures use different techniques, however are similar in that they all aim to separate viable from non-viable sperm. Health Engine Patient Blog. Medical Glossary. Looking for a practitioner? HealthEngine helps you find the practitioner you need. Find your practitioner. What are you looking for? Search for articles. Popular searches How can I relieve my back pain? Pregnancy and Lifestyle. Sexual Health. What are sperm? The role of sperm in fertilisation Male factor infertility What is sperm retrieval and when is it performed? How can sperm be retrieved? Ejaculation — mastubation Ejaculation — sexual intercourse Vibration or electro stimulation Surgical removal Semen analysis sperm count testing How is an abnormal semen analysis result determined? Treatment options for sub-optimal sperm production Sperm preparation for assisted reproduction techniques What are sperm? The role of sperm in fertilisation In order to fertilise an egg and create an embryo, sperm must leave the testes and come into contact with a mature oocyte i. What is sperm retrieval and when is it performed? Ejaculation — sexual intercourse Inducing ejaculation by engaging in sexual intercourse is generally not recommended for sperm retrieval purposes. Vibration or electro stimulation For men who do not produce ejaculate, vibration or electro stimulation techniques are often effective in inducing ejaculation. Surgical removal When other sperm retrieval techniques fail, there are several surgical methods which can be used to retrieve sperm from either the epididymis or testicles. They are: Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration MESA: A needle is then inserted into a suitable area of the scrotum and sperm are aspirated into the needle. The procedure is usually performed under local anaesthetic; Percutaneous epididymal sperm extraction PESE: This is the simplest surgical sperm retrieval procedure and is performed under local anaesthetic, however does not always result in a sufficient quantity of sperm being retrieved; Fine needle aspiration FNA: It is a simple technique however generally results in only a few sperm being retrieved, meaning that sperm cannot be cryopreserved for future use; Testicular sperm extraction TESE - Open Testicular Biopsy: The scrotum and testes are cut open, before testicular tissues are cut away and examined for sperm, which, if present can be extracted. Semen analysis testing investigates a number of characteristics of the seminal fluid and the sperm it contains including: Volume of ejaculate: The concentration of sperm per ml of ejaculate can then be calculated; Sperm motility: System SCA, Microptic gives objective and fast analysis. Software is easy and friendly to use. A lot of my friends have got surprised when I decided to bring the SCA to my clinic as it was a little bit more expensive than some systems which were already exist in my city that time but I decided to use SCA , and now after 8 years using SCA , I am proud of taking that decision and I am ready to take it again if I have the choice. Thank you all , the team of Microptics, of being always very helpful. Tareq Sharif , Alamal Fertility Centre. Mictoptic S. L is a professional Comp. I do recommend SCA systems for the easiest, accurate, and configurable systems. Eventually, Microptic S. Shadi Alnakhaleh , Roche. I recommend this product Hiva Alipour , Aalborg University. Easy to use and very good quality report. We are using the SCA systems for 5 years and still ongoing. Before that period we used a glass camera for semen analysis and manual counting. As a lab manager I will share that the SCA system is really reliable and independent. It gives a good idea about what is the real concentration, motility and velocity of the spermatozoa in the semen sample; the morphology of every single spermatozoa, using strict criteria; the percentage of DNA fragmentation in sperm. The systems has good quality, reliable and repeated results and user friendly. Microptic S. L is a professional Company and always gives immediate help and advice. Go ahead, you are a great team! We use cookies to improve your experience. This section includes what are described as 'optional' procedures, including the calculation of many indices, mostly in the area of sperm morphology. However, many of these tests are not carried out by routine laboratories largely owing to a lack of expertise in this field as well as their expense. In this section, the assessment of the post-coital test can also be found; surprisingly, even the 'donated' mucus is mentioned. Biochemical assays including the measurement of fructose, zinc and epididymal glucosidase are outlined. These are valuable, as many laboratories no longer have the time or money to carry out these clinically important tests. There is also a substantial section on the detection and measurement of reactive oxygen species, an area that is clearly gaining importance in the understanding of semen pathology. Attention is also given to execution and application of sperm—oocyte interaction as well as the use of an assessment to measure the acrosome reaction. These procedures are illustrated by high-quality photomicrographs. Overall, every important test used in semen analysis is covered in Part 1, and the clarity and simplicity of the presentation is excellent. The separation of spermatozoa from seminal plasma is now an important aspect of the work of an andrology laboratory. Such an exercise may be needed to prepare spermatozoa for tests of functioning or for the use of such spermatozoa in a treatment regime for example, intrauterine insemination. All the commonly used methods are simply described and included in this part of the manual, as are the means of handling HIV-infected semen samples. The preparation of testicular and epididymal spermatozoa are also described in this section, together with the methodology needed to collect spermatozoa from men with retrograde ejaculation. Methods of cryopreservation are also described, although a slightly extended section on this procedure, particularly including the physiology of freezing, may have been beneficial for beginners. This section describes the problem of quality assurance in relation to semen samples. Although this may not be of great importance to the clinical field, it is very important in many aspects of research. There is an excellent section on laboratory factors that influence quality assurance. The use of statistics in this context is clearly described and simple to understand. It must always be remembered that the execution of a semen analysis is a skilled procedure and that proper training in this exercise is very important. It is clear, however, that training helps to prevent spurious results and poor quality control. In addition, it includes a section about reference values in relation to semen variables. Although these reference ranges are useful for epidemiological studies relating to men's health, it is dangerous to assume that they indicate either fertility or infertility except when they are at the extremes of the range. As Eliasson 2 pointed out nearly 40 years ago, conception relates to probabilities rather than reference ranges. Put another way, conception is related to probability not to the certainty that reference ranges would seem to indicate. It must also be remembered that controlling both male as well as female fertility is female fecundity—and this cannot be assessed from a semen analysis. It should also be pointed out again that semen analysis alone is a poor discriminator of fertility and cannot, except on relatively rare occasions, provide a diagnosis. That is, an abnormal semen analysis is not a diagnosis; it is just a physical sign. Thus, comments on the treatment of patients with an abnormal sperm count, even that below the fifth percentile, are misleading, given that a diagnosis cannot definitively be given in the laboratory. Overall, this edition of the WHO manual is very much improved relative to the earlier edition. It should be the standard reference manual for all laboratories that carry out semen analysis and similar procedures. The editors should be congratulated on producing such an improved version. Journal List Asian J Androl v. Asian J Androl. Published online Jan Anne M. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC..

The use of indirect tests is also carefully described, as this is often very confusing to many new laboratory scientists engaged in semen analysis. This section includes what are described as 'optional' procedures, including the calculation of many indices, mostly Sperm analysis instruments the area of sperm morphology.

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However, many of these tests are not carried out by routine laboratories largely Sperm analysis instruments to a lack Sperm analysis instruments expertise in this field as well as their expense. In this section, the assessment of the post-coital test can also be found; surprisingly, even the 'donated' mucus is mentioned. Biochemical assays including the measurement of fructose, zinc and epididymal glucosidase are outlined. These are valuable, as many laboratories no longer have the time or money to carry out these clinically important tests.

There is also a Sperm analysis instruments section on the detection and measurement of reactive oxygen species, an area that is clearly gaining importance in the understanding of semen pathology. Attention is also given to execution and application of sperm—oocyte interaction as well as the use of an assessment to measure the acrosome reaction. These procedures are illustrated by high-quality photomicrographs.

Click image to enlarge. Semen test following WHO laboratory manual.

Overall, every important test used in semen analysis is covered in Part 1, and the clarity and simplicity of the presentation is excellent. The separation of spermatozoa from seminal plasma is now Sperm analysis instruments important aspect of the work of an andrology laboratory. Such an exercise may be needed to prepare spermatozoa for tests of functioning or for the use of such spermatozoa in a treatment regime for example, intrauterine insemination.

All the commonly used methods are simply described and included in this part of the manual, as are the means of handling HIV-infected semen samples. The preparation of testicular and epididymal spermatozoa are also Sperm analysis instruments in this section, together with the methodology Sperm analysis instruments to collect spermatozoa from men with retrograde ejaculation.

Methods of cryopreservation are also described, although a slightly extended section on this procedure, particularly including the physiology of freezing, may have been beneficial for beginners. When conducting semen analysis testing it is important to remember that assessment of the entire population of sperm in a sample of ejaculate does not determine whether or not a man Sperm analysis instruments the capacity to conceive naturally i.

A man with low sperm concentration still has the capacity to conceive naturally, although his likelihood of conception will be reduced compared to a man with a higher concentration of sperm. When one or more of the test values fall outside the WHO criteria, a repeat semen analysis test is usually conducted ideally 3 months after the first test to confirm the result. Semen quality can vary considerably over time, due to the go here, lifestyle and environmental conditions of the man whose semen is being analysed.

Based on the results of semen analysis testing, a man will be given Sperm analysis instruments sperm classification, using the following standard terminology:.

Following retrieval, sperm will be taken to a laboratory for analysis or preparation for assisted reproductive techniques. As a semen sample potentially contains dangerous viruses e.

pervporn Watch Bulma blowjob gif Video Dinosaur porn. The concentration of sperm per ml of ejaculate can then be calculated; Sperm motility: The semen sample is therefore examined to determine what proportion of sperm is motile and to what extent they move. Sperm can be classified as rapidly progressive i. The shape of the head, tail and mid-piece of up to sperm will be examined and their details recorded so that the proportion of morphologically normal sperm in the ejaculate can be calculated; pH: Normal seminal fluid will change to watery liquid within minutes of ejaculation; Vitality: Sperm are generally protected from these antibodies whilst in the testicles, however in men who have previously experienced testicular surgery or trauma, sperm antibodies may be found in the seminal fluid. In other cases the presence of sperm antibodies is unexplained. How is an abnormal semen analysis result determined? Oligozoospermia may result from environmental conditions e. In cases of unexplained infertility , intrauterine insemination is often instituted as first line treatment , however recent evidence from a large randomised controlled trial demonstrates that intrauterine insemination with or without ovarian stimulation is no more effective than expectant management waiting and seeing in terms of achieving conception ; Oligozoospermia: The likelihood of a successful intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcome are however reduced when the injected sperm is immotile; Teratozoospermia: Thus men with this condition have little chance of conceiving naturally, through intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilisation. Treatment with intracytoplasmic sperm injection is therefore indicated in these men; Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia: Where these treatments fail, the retrieval of sperm using surgical methods may enable successful intrauterine insemination, in vitro fertilisation or intracytoplasmic sperm injection; 4 Aspermia: Sperm preparation for assisted reproduction techniques Following retrieval, sperm will be taken to a laboratory for analysis or preparation for assisted reproductive techniques. The most common semen preparation techniques are: Discontinuous density gradient: Fresh semen is covered with a medium and placed in a cylinder which is laid at a 45 o C angle. Motile sperm in the ejaculate will then swim up to the top of the tube, leaving immotile sperm and debris in the lower part of the cylinder. Male infertility: The case for continued research. Med J Aust. Hirsch A. Male subfertility. Cambridge University Press; Clinical guideline: Assessment and treatment for people with fertility problems [online]. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Available from URL: Clomifene citrate or unstimulated intrauterine insemination compared with expectant management for unexplained infertility: Pragmatic randomised controlled trial. Malter HE, Cohen J. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection: Technical aspects. Current Practices and Controversies in Assisted Reproduction [online]. World Health Organisation; [cited 30 December ]. Methods of semen collection not based on masturbation or surgical sperm retrieval. Hum Reprod Update. Location of semen collection and time interval from collection to use for intrauterine insemination. Fertil Steril. Shafik A. The mechanism of ejaculation: The glans-vasal and urethromuscular reflexes. Arch Androl. Functional electrical stimulation for ejaculation. A prospective study of multiple needle biopsies versus a single open biopsy for testicular sperm extraction in men with non-obstructive azoospermia. Hum Reprod. Khalifa Y, Grudzinskas JG. Minimally invasive surgery for male subfertility. Craft I, Tsirigotis M. Simplified recovery, preparation and cryopreservation of testicular spermatozoa. Techniques for surgical retrieval of sperm prior to intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection ICSI for azoospermia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Semen preparation techniques for intrauterine insemination. Vitality of oligozoospermic semen samples is improved by both swim-up and density gradient centrifugation before cryopreservation. J Assist Reprod Genet. Software yearly update Compatible with last operating systems available: User can define the diagnosis criteria, as well as prescription or recommendable treatment. This will be automatically included in the final results and reports Large number of species can be analysed: All software updates and quality control available at all times Ready for ISO We are very happy with the fast replies and support we are getting from the company and also about the system itself. It is very user friendly. System SCA, Microptic gives objective and fast analysis. Software is easy and friendly to use. A lot of my friends have got surprised when I decided to bring the SCA to my clinic as it was a little bit more expensive than some systems which were already exist in my city that time but I decided to use SCA , and now after 8 years using SCA , I am proud of taking that decision and I am ready to take it again if I have the choice. Thank you all , the team of Microptics, of being always very helpful. Tareq Sharif , Alamal Fertility Centre. Mictoptic S. L is a professional Comp. I do recommend SCA systems for the easiest, accurate, and configurable systems. Eventually, Microptic S. Shadi Alnakhaleh , Roche. I recommend this product Hiva Alipour , Aalborg University. Easy to use and very good quality report. We are using the SCA systems for 5 years and still ongoing. Before that period we used a glass camera for semen analysis and manual counting. As a lab manager I will share that the SCA system is really reliable and independent. However, it fails to acknowledge that the cause of the changes in an abnormal semen analysis such as the impairment of sperm function or a reduction in sperm numbers cannot be determined from the examination of a semen sample 1 and therefore medical laboratory scientists should refrain from giving advice on treatment. In the section relating to the collection of a semen sample, the authors state that the sample should be collected in a room near the laboratory. However, it is common for patients to report that they feel much more comfortable producing the sample at home. This section examines the assessment of the physical properties of semen, such as liquefaction, viscosity, semen volume and seminal pH. It also describes tests to evaluate the severity of abnormalities of these properties. In addition, the authors stress the need for careful mixing of seminal fluid before its examination to avoid the common problem of generation of artefacts due to poor mixing. It is frequently forgotten that mixing of the components of seminal fluid occurs only after ejaculation, and in the collection of a semen sample, that can only occur in the semen pot. Agglutination of spermatozoa in an ejaculate is not uncommon, and the handling of this problem and its reporting is well described and illustrated. The next part of this section involves the assessment of sperm motility. It recommends the use of a chamber of at least 20 microns deep for this type of analysis, as shallower chambers may impede sperm movement. This section describes a simple and easy technique for detecting motility without introducing errors. This section describes the use of the eosin—nigrosin test to determine sperm vitality, an aspect of semen analysis that is important but often omitted by many laboratories. This is accompanied by very nice pictures of spermatozoa, both positively and negatively stained. Another vitality test that is included in this edition is the hypo-osmotic swelling HOS test. This procedure is becoming increasingly useful, not only in detecting the vitality of the spermatozoa in semen analysis but also in determining the selection of spermatozoa for ICSI. Counting spermatozoa is often considered the most important part of semen analysis. However, it is in fact only one part, and all the facets of semen quality must be examined if the analysis is to be of any substantive value to the clinician. The manual describes several types of chambers as well as each of the grids. As many counting chambers are now available and they are generally expensive, the section on their care is an important and welcome addition to the manual. The very good description of the use of these chambers and the methods for calculating sperm count is valuable. Today, too few laboratories take enough care in the diagnosis of azoospermia, and centrifugation is rarely carried out. The identification of white blood cells in a semen sample is important for the clinician. As it is often impossible to differentiate these cells from germinal cells, the manual's explanation of the counting of these cells is valuable. This aspect of semen analysis is usually considered the most difficult one, and the manual properly describes it in greater detail. The concept of normal spermatozoa is discussed, and the staining of slides is described in some detail. The preferred stains are named, and the make-up of these stains is also included. Also included in this section is a methodology for the use of the peroxidase stain, which positively identifies white blood cells. Unlike many of the earlier editions of the manual, there is now a large collection of photomicrographs depicting many of the morphological abnormalities of spermatozoa, germinal cells and white blood cells, as well as a group of morphologically diverse spermatozoa that are considered to be 'normal'. This inclusion will be of great value to many newcomers in the field of semen analysis, and the editors of the manual are to be congratulated on their careful selection of these illustrations. This area also makes up an important part of a semen analysis, and standard tests such as the 'mixed antiglobulin reaction MAR ' test and the immuno-bead test are described in detail. The use of indirect tests is also carefully described, as this is often very confusing to many new laboratory scientists engaged in semen analysis. This section includes what are described as 'optional' procedures, including the calculation of many indices, mostly in the area of sperm morphology. However, many of these tests are not carried out by routine laboratories largely owing to a lack of expertise in this field as well as their expense. In this section, the assessment of the post-coital test can also be found; surprisingly, even the 'donated' mucus is mentioned. Biochemical assays including the measurement of fructose, zinc and epididymal glucosidase are outlined. These are valuable, as many laboratories no longer have the time or money to carry out these clinically important tests..

Sperm preparation is a procedure in which the most viable sperm in an ejaculate i. This is because these components of the suspension are thought to impair the fertilisation process. Following separation, the motile sperm are re-suspended to form a solution with a high concentration of sperm. There are a Sperm analysis instruments of techniques which Sperm analysis instruments be used to prepare sperm and the technique used will depend upon the assisted reproductive technique procedure and the quality of the semen sample.

Skinny backshots Watch Show tv emma watson nude Video Hradcore fuck. Accurate and fast assessment, manually unattainable Hyperactivation: Automatic and rigorous assessment, far away to be attained by subjective observation Morphology: Accurate and complete sperm size and shape estimation Vitality: Accurately quantified Quality control: Internal and external QC available. External Quality control, as for instance, Fertaid compatible. Software yearly update Compatible with last operating systems available: User can define the diagnosis criteria, as well as prescription or recommendable treatment. This will be automatically included in the final results and reports Large number of species can be analysed: All software updates and quality control available at all times Ready for ISO We are very happy with the fast replies and support we are getting from the company and also about the system itself. It is very user friendly. System SCA, Microptic gives objective and fast analysis. Software is easy and friendly to use. A lot of my friends have got surprised when I decided to bring the SCA to my clinic as it was a little bit more expensive than some systems which were already exist in my city that time but I decided to use SCA , and now after 8 years using SCA , I am proud of taking that decision and I am ready to take it again if I have the choice. Thank you all , the team of Microptics, of being always very helpful. Tareq Sharif , Alamal Fertility Centre. Mictoptic S. L is a professional Comp. I do recommend SCA systems for the easiest, accurate, and configurable systems. Eventually, Microptic S. The very good description of the use of these chambers and the methods for calculating sperm count is valuable. Today, too few laboratories take enough care in the diagnosis of azoospermia, and centrifugation is rarely carried out. The identification of white blood cells in a semen sample is important for the clinician. As it is often impossible to differentiate these cells from germinal cells, the manual's explanation of the counting of these cells is valuable. This aspect of semen analysis is usually considered the most difficult one, and the manual properly describes it in greater detail. The concept of normal spermatozoa is discussed, and the staining of slides is described in some detail. The preferred stains are named, and the make-up of these stains is also included. Also included in this section is a methodology for the use of the peroxidase stain, which positively identifies white blood cells. Unlike many of the earlier editions of the manual, there is now a large collection of photomicrographs depicting many of the morphological abnormalities of spermatozoa, germinal cells and white blood cells, as well as a group of morphologically diverse spermatozoa that are considered to be 'normal'. This inclusion will be of great value to many newcomers in the field of semen analysis, and the editors of the manual are to be congratulated on their careful selection of these illustrations. This area also makes up an important part of a semen analysis, and standard tests such as the 'mixed antiglobulin reaction MAR ' test and the immuno-bead test are described in detail. The use of indirect tests is also carefully described, as this is often very confusing to many new laboratory scientists engaged in semen analysis. This section includes what are described as 'optional' procedures, including the calculation of many indices, mostly in the area of sperm morphology. However, many of these tests are not carried out by routine laboratories largely owing to a lack of expertise in this field as well as their expense. In this section, the assessment of the post-coital test can also be found; surprisingly, even the 'donated' mucus is mentioned. Biochemical assays including the measurement of fructose, zinc and epididymal glucosidase are outlined. These are valuable, as many laboratories no longer have the time or money to carry out these clinically important tests. There is also a substantial section on the detection and measurement of reactive oxygen species, an area that is clearly gaining importance in the understanding of semen pathology. Attention is also given to execution and application of sperm—oocyte interaction as well as the use of an assessment to measure the acrosome reaction. These procedures are illustrated by high-quality photomicrographs. Overall, every important test used in semen analysis is covered in Part 1, and the clarity and simplicity of the presentation is excellent. The separation of spermatozoa from seminal plasma is now an important aspect of the work of an andrology laboratory. Such an exercise may be needed to prepare spermatozoa for tests of functioning or for the use of such spermatozoa in a treatment regime for example, intrauterine insemination. All the commonly used methods are simply described and included in this part of the manual, as are the means of handling HIV-infected semen samples. The preparation of testicular and epididymal spermatozoa are also described in this section, together with the methodology needed to collect spermatozoa from men with retrograde ejaculation. Methods of cryopreservation are also described, although a slightly extended section on this procedure, particularly including the physiology of freezing, may have been beneficial for beginners. This section describes the problem of quality assurance in relation to semen samples. Although this may not be of great importance to the clinical field, it is very important in many aspects of research. There is an excellent section on laboratory factors that influence quality assurance. The use of statistics in this context is clearly described and simple to understand. It must always be remembered that the execution of a semen analysis is a skilled procedure and that proper training in this exercise is very important. It is clear, however, that training helps to prevent spurious results and poor quality control. In addition, it includes a section about reference values in relation to semen variables. Although these reference ranges are useful for epidemiological studies relating to men's health, it is dangerous to assume that they indicate either fertility or infertility except when they are at the extremes of the range. As Eliasson 2 pointed out nearly 40 years ago, conception relates to probabilities rather than reference ranges. Put another way, conception is related to probability not to the certainty that reference ranges would seem to indicate. Inducing ejaculation by engaging in sexual intercourse is generally not recommended for sperm retrieval purposes. In such cases, couples will be provided with a special condom to use to collect the semen sample. Couples will be advised not to use a standard condom as normal latex condoms affect the quality of the semen sample. Couples will also be advised against coitus interuptus i. This is because the best quality portion of the semen is ejaculated first and may not be captured using this technique, but also because vaginal fluid can affect the quality of the semen sample. For men who do not produce ejaculate, vibration or electro stimulation techniques are often effective in inducing ejaculation. They are relatively simple techniques which do not require anaesthetic, however they do require the assistance of a health professional and special medical equipment. The aim is to induce an ejaculation by stimulating ejaculatory reflexes. Electrical impulses are then sent through the probe to stimulate sensitive nerves in this region, which can induce an erection and ejaculation. When other sperm retrieval techniques fail, there are several surgical methods which can be used to retrieve sperm from either the epididymis or testicles. They are:. There is currently insufficient evidence to determine which of the sperm retrieval techniques have the best outcomes in terms of pregnancy rates or patient satisfaction. It involves examining a sample of freshly retrieved semen under a microscope and by conducting a range of tests. Semen analysis is most commonly performed manually, however computer assisted semen analysis can increase the accuracy of the assessment if specialised equipment is available. Microscopic investigation involves a highly trained professional placing a small amount of sperm onto a slide and examining it under a microscope. The results are compared to reference values published by the World Health Organisation. Semen analysis testing investigates a number of characteristics of the seminal fluid and the sperm it contains including:. The results of a semen analysis test will be compared to reference values determined by the World Health Organisation WHO. When conducting semen analysis testing it is important to remember that assessment of the entire population of sperm in a sample of ejaculate does not determine whether or not a man has the capacity to conceive naturally i. A man with low sperm concentration still has the capacity to conceive naturally, although his likelihood of conception will be reduced compared to a man with a higher concentration of sperm. When one or more of the test values fall outside the WHO criteria, a repeat semen analysis test is usually conducted ideally 3 months after the first test to confirm the result. Semen quality can vary considerably over time, due to the health, lifestyle and environmental conditions of the man whose semen is being analysed. Based on the results of semen analysis testing, a man will be given a sperm classification, using the following standard terminology:. Following retrieval, sperm will be taken to a laboratory for analysis or preparation for assisted reproductive techniques. As a semen sample potentially contains dangerous viruses e. Sperm preparation is a procedure in which the most viable sperm in an ejaculate i. This is because these components of the suspension are thought to impair the fertilisation process. Following separation, the motile sperm are re-suspended to form a solution with a high concentration of sperm. There are a range of techniques which can be used to prepare sperm and the technique used will depend upon the assisted reproductive technique procedure and the quality of the semen sample. The procedures use different techniques, however are similar in that they all aim to separate viable from non-viable sperm. Health Engine Patient Blog. Medical Glossary. Looking for a practitioner? HealthEngine helps you find the practitioner you need. Find your practitioner. What are you looking for? Search for articles. Popular searches How can I relieve my back pain? Pregnancy and Lifestyle. Sexual Health. What are sperm? The role of sperm in fertilisation Male factor infertility What is sperm retrieval and when is it performed? How can sperm be retrieved? Ejaculation — mastubation Ejaculation — sexual intercourse Vibration or electro stimulation Surgical removal Semen analysis sperm count testing How is an abnormal semen analysis result determined? Treatment options for sub-optimal sperm production Sperm preparation for assisted reproduction techniques What are sperm? The role of sperm in fertilisation In order to fertilise an egg and create an embryo, sperm must leave the testes and come into contact with a mature oocyte i. What is sperm retrieval and when is it performed? Ejaculation — sexual intercourse Inducing ejaculation by engaging in sexual intercourse is generally not recommended for sperm retrieval purposes. Vibration or electro stimulation For men who do not produce ejaculate, vibration or electro stimulation techniques are often effective in inducing ejaculation. Surgical removal When other sperm retrieval techniques fail, there are several surgical methods which can be used to retrieve sperm from either the epididymis or testicles. They are: Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration MESA: A needle is then inserted into a suitable area of the scrotum and sperm are aspirated into the needle. The procedure is usually performed under local anaesthetic; Percutaneous epididymal sperm extraction PESE: This is the simplest surgical sperm retrieval procedure and is performed under local anaesthetic, however does not always result in a sufficient quantity of sperm being retrieved; Fine needle aspiration FNA: It is a simple technique however generally results in only a few sperm being retrieved, meaning that sperm cannot be cryopreserved for future use; Testicular sperm extraction TESE - Open Testicular Biopsy:.

The procedures use different techniques, however are similar in that they all aim to separate viable from non-viable sperm. Health Engine Patient Blog. Medical Glossary. Looking for a practitioner? HealthEngine helps you Sperm analysis instruments the practitioner you need. Find your practitioner. What are you looking for? Search for articles. Popular searches How can I relieve my back pain?

Sperm analysis instruments

Pregnancy and Lifestyle. Sexual Health. What are sperm? The role of sperm in fertilisation Male factor infertility What is sperm retrieval and when is it performed?

How can sperm be retrieved? Ejaculation — mastubation Ejaculation — sexual intercourse Vibration or electro stimulation Surgical removal Semen analysis sperm count testing Sperm analysis instruments is an abnormal semen Sperm analysis instruments result determined? Treatment options for sub-optimal sperm production Sperm preparation for assisted reproduction techniques What are sperm?

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The role of sperm in fertilisation In order to fertilise an egg and create an embryo, sperm must leave the testes and come into contact with a mature oocyte i. What is sperm retrieval and when is it performed? Ejaculation — sexual intercourse Inducing ejaculation by engaging in sexual intercourse is generally not recommended for sperm retrieval purposes. Vibration or electro stimulation For men who do not produce ejaculate, vibration or electro stimulation techniques are often effective in inducing ejaculation.

Surgical removal When other sperm retrieval techniques fail, there are several surgical methods Sperm analysis instruments can be used to Sperm analysis instruments sperm from either the epididymis or testicles. They are: Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration MESA: A needle is then inserted into a suitable area of the scrotum and sperm are aspirated into the needle. The procedure is usually performed under local anaesthetic; Percutaneous epididymal sperm extraction PESE: This is the simplest surgical sperm retrieval procedure and is performed under local anaesthetic, however does not always result in a sufficient quantity of sperm being retrieved; Fine needle aspiration FNA: It is Sperm analysis instruments simple technique however generally results in only a few sperm being retrieved, meaning that sperm cannot be cryopreserved for future use; Testicular sperm extraction TESE - Open Testicular Biopsy: The scrotum and testes are cut open, before testicular tissues are cut Sperm analysis instruments and examined for sperm, which, if present can be extracted.

Semen analysis testing investigates a number of characteristics of the seminal fluid and the sperm it contains including: Volume of ejaculate: The concentration of sperm per ml of ejaculate can then be calculated; Sperm motility: The semen sample is therefore examined to determine what proportion of sperm is motile and to what extent they move. Sperm can be classified as rapidly progressive i. The shape of the head, tail and mid-piece Sperm analysis instruments up to sperm will be examined and their details recorded so that the proportion of morphologically normal sperm in the ejaculate can be visit web page pH: Normal seminal fluid will change to watery liquid within minutes of ejaculation; Vitality: Sperm are Sperm analysis instruments protected from these antibodies whilst in the testicles, however in men who have previously experienced testicular surgery or trauma, sperm antibodies may be found in the seminal fluid.

In other cases the presence of sperm antibodies is unexplained.

Semen analysis: a new manual and its application to the understanding of semen and its pathology

How is an abnormal semen analysis result determined? Oligozoospermia may result from environmental conditions e. In cases of unexplained infertilityintrauterine insemination is often instituted as first line treatmenthowever recent evidence from a large randomised controlled trial demonstrates that intrauterine insemination with or without ovarian stimulation is no more effective than expectant management waiting and seeing in terms of achieving conception ; Oligozoospermia: The likelihood of a successful intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcome are however reduced when the injected sperm is immotile; Teratozoospermia: Thus men with this condition have little chance of conceiving naturally, through intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilisation.

Treatment with intracytoplasmic sperm injection is Sperm analysis instruments indicated in these men; Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia: Where these treatments fail, the retrieval of sperm using surgical methods may enable successful intrauterine insemination, in vitro fertilisation or intracytoplasmic sperm injection; 4 Aspermia: Sperm preparation for assisted reproduction techniques Following retrieval, sperm will be taken to a laboratory for analysis Sperm analysis instruments preparation for assisted reproductive techniques.

POV teen cock riding. Sperm is the male gametethat is, the male sex Sperm analysis instrumentsor the cell in males which has the capacity to fertilise an egg i. Sperm are produced in the seminiferous tubes of the testes. The pituitary gland at the base of the brain causes testosterone to be produced in the testes. Testerosterone causes sperms to be produced. The sperm production cycle takes approximately three months and a healthy Sperm analysis instruments produces millions of new sperm each day.

Sperm are not visible to the human eye, however when viewed under a microscope they look a bit like tadpoles because they have a round head section and a long tail. The head of a sperm contains it nucleuswithin Sperm analysis instruments 23 chromosomes i.

The tail structure enables the sperm Sperm analysis instruments move actively once it leaves the testicles. It helps propel sperm forward from the vagina when sperm are expelled during sexual intercourse toward the uterus in search of an oocyte in the fallopian tubes.

The tail also Sperm analysis instruments the necessary motion for the sperm to bind to and penetrate an egg once it has been reached. In order to fertilise an egg and create an embryo, sperm must leave the testes and come into contact with a mature oocyte i. Typically a single ovarian follicle will prepare an oocyte for release during each ovulatory cycleand thus, a single mature oocyte will be released each time a woman ovulates.

The oocyte is released from the follicle where it has matured, then leaves the ovaries and travels to the uterus via here fallopian tubesusually every 28 days. For fertilisation to occur, sperm must enter the fallopian tubes while the mature oocyte is also there i. Sperm leaves the Sperm analysis instruments, via the epididymis and vas deferens i.

The seminal fluid leaves the body via the urethral opening of the penis. If ejaculation occurs during unprotected sexual intercourse i. If the sperm are motile i. In many cases the woman will not be ovulating at the time of sexual intercourse, therefore no mature oocyte will be present in the fallopian tubes and fertilisation will not occur.

The single celled embryo will then replicate to produce further 46 chromosome cells which will eventually form the foetus. It is this process Sperm analysis instruments the egg and sperm combining their chromosomes which represents the end of the fertilisation process. It affects about one in twenty Australian men and is most commonly underpinned by sub-optimal sperm production.

Sext women Watch Good cum-covered slut Video Fuckbook online. User can define the diagnosis criteria, as well as prescription or recommendable treatment. This will be automatically included in the final results and reports Large number of species can be analysed: All software updates and quality control available at all times Ready for ISO We are very happy with the fast replies and support we are getting from the company and also about the system itself. It is very user friendly. System SCA, Microptic gives objective and fast analysis. Software is easy and friendly to use. A lot of my friends have got surprised when I decided to bring the SCA to my clinic as it was a little bit more expensive than some systems which were already exist in my city that time but I decided to use SCA , and now after 8 years using SCA , I am proud of taking that decision and I am ready to take it again if I have the choice. Thank you all , the team of Microptics, of being always very helpful. Tareq Sharif , Alamal Fertility Centre. Mictoptic S. L is a professional Comp. I do recommend SCA systems for the easiest, accurate, and configurable systems. Eventually, Microptic S. Shadi Alnakhaleh , Roche. I recommend this product Hiva Alipour , Aalborg University. Easy to use and very good quality report. We are using the SCA systems for 5 years and still ongoing. Before that period we used a glass camera for semen analysis and manual counting. As a lab manager I will share that the SCA system is really reliable and independent. It gives a good idea about what is the real concentration, motility and velocity of the spermatozoa in the semen sample; the morphology of every single spermatozoa, using strict criteria; the percentage of DNA fragmentation in sperm. Also included in this section is a methodology for the use of the peroxidase stain, which positively identifies white blood cells. Unlike many of the earlier editions of the manual, there is now a large collection of photomicrographs depicting many of the morphological abnormalities of spermatozoa, germinal cells and white blood cells, as well as a group of morphologically diverse spermatozoa that are considered to be 'normal'. This inclusion will be of great value to many newcomers in the field of semen analysis, and the editors of the manual are to be congratulated on their careful selection of these illustrations. This area also makes up an important part of a semen analysis, and standard tests such as the 'mixed antiglobulin reaction MAR ' test and the immuno-bead test are described in detail. The use of indirect tests is also carefully described, as this is often very confusing to many new laboratory scientists engaged in semen analysis. This section includes what are described as 'optional' procedures, including the calculation of many indices, mostly in the area of sperm morphology. However, many of these tests are not carried out by routine laboratories largely owing to a lack of expertise in this field as well as their expense. In this section, the assessment of the post-coital test can also be found; surprisingly, even the 'donated' mucus is mentioned. Biochemical assays including the measurement of fructose, zinc and epididymal glucosidase are outlined. These are valuable, as many laboratories no longer have the time or money to carry out these clinically important tests. There is also a substantial section on the detection and measurement of reactive oxygen species, an area that is clearly gaining importance in the understanding of semen pathology. Attention is also given to execution and application of sperm—oocyte interaction as well as the use of an assessment to measure the acrosome reaction. These procedures are illustrated by high-quality photomicrographs. Overall, every important test used in semen analysis is covered in Part 1, and the clarity and simplicity of the presentation is excellent. The separation of spermatozoa from seminal plasma is now an important aspect of the work of an andrology laboratory. Such an exercise may be needed to prepare spermatozoa for tests of functioning or for the use of such spermatozoa in a treatment regime for example, intrauterine insemination. All the commonly used methods are simply described and included in this part of the manual, as are the means of handling HIV-infected semen samples. The preparation of testicular and epididymal spermatozoa are also described in this section, together with the methodology needed to collect spermatozoa from men with retrograde ejaculation. Methods of cryopreservation are also described, although a slightly extended section on this procedure, particularly including the physiology of freezing, may have been beneficial for beginners. This section describes the problem of quality assurance in relation to semen samples. Although this may not be of great importance to the clinical field, it is very important in many aspects of research. There is an excellent section on laboratory factors that influence quality assurance. The use of statistics in this context is clearly described and simple to understand. It must always be remembered that the execution of a semen analysis is a skilled procedure and that proper training in this exercise is very important. It is clear, however, that training helps to prevent spurious results and poor quality control. In addition, it includes a section about reference values in relation to semen variables. Although these reference ranges are useful for epidemiological studies relating to men's health, it is dangerous to assume that they indicate either fertility or infertility except when they are at the extremes of the range. As Eliasson 2 pointed out nearly 40 years ago, conception relates to probabilities rather than reference ranges. Put another way, conception is related to probability not to the certainty that reference ranges would seem to indicate. It must also be remembered that controlling both male as well as female fertility is female fecundity—and this cannot be assessed from a semen analysis. It should also be pointed out again that semen analysis alone is a poor discriminator of fertility and cannot, except on relatively rare occasions, provide a diagnosis. That is, an abnormal semen analysis is not a diagnosis; it is just a physical sign. Thus, comments on the treatment of patients with an abnormal sperm count, even that below the fifth percentile, are misleading, given that a diagnosis cannot definitively be given in the laboratory. Overall, this edition of the WHO manual is very much improved relative to the earlier edition. It should be the standard reference manual for all laboratories that carry out semen analysis and similar procedures. The editors should be congratulated on producing such an improved version. Sperm preparation is a procedure in which the most viable sperm in an ejaculate i. This is because these components of the suspension are thought to impair the fertilisation process. Following separation, the motile sperm are re-suspended to form a solution with a high concentration of sperm. There are a range of techniques which can be used to prepare sperm and the technique used will depend upon the assisted reproductive technique procedure and the quality of the semen sample. The procedures use different techniques, however are similar in that they all aim to separate viable from non-viable sperm. Health Engine Patient Blog. Medical Glossary. Looking for a practitioner? HealthEngine helps you find the practitioner you need. Find your practitioner. What are you looking for? Search for articles. Popular searches How can I relieve my back pain? Pregnancy and Lifestyle. Sexual Health. What are sperm? The role of sperm in fertilisation Male factor infertility What is sperm retrieval and when is it performed? How can sperm be retrieved? Ejaculation — mastubation Ejaculation — sexual intercourse Vibration or electro stimulation Surgical removal Semen analysis sperm count testing How is an abnormal semen analysis result determined? Treatment options for sub-optimal sperm production Sperm preparation for assisted reproduction techniques What are sperm? The role of sperm in fertilisation In order to fertilise an egg and create an embryo, sperm must leave the testes and come into contact with a mature oocyte i. What is sperm retrieval and when is it performed? Ejaculation — sexual intercourse Inducing ejaculation by engaging in sexual intercourse is generally not recommended for sperm retrieval purposes. Vibration or electro stimulation For men who do not produce ejaculate, vibration or electro stimulation techniques are often effective in inducing ejaculation. Surgical removal When other sperm retrieval techniques fail, there are several surgical methods which can be used to retrieve sperm from either the epididymis or testicles. They are: Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration MESA: A needle is then inserted into a suitable area of the scrotum and sperm are aspirated into the needle. The procedure is usually performed under local anaesthetic; Percutaneous epididymal sperm extraction PESE: This is the simplest surgical sperm retrieval procedure and is performed under local anaesthetic, however does not always result in a sufficient quantity of sperm being retrieved; Fine needle aspiration FNA: It is a simple technique however generally results in only a few sperm being retrieved, meaning that sperm cannot be cryopreserved for future use; Testicular sperm extraction TESE - Open Testicular Biopsy: The scrotum and testes are cut open, before testicular tissues are cut away and examined for sperm, which, if present can be extracted. Semen analysis testing investigates a number of characteristics of the seminal fluid and the sperm it contains including: Volume of ejaculate: The concentration of sperm per ml of ejaculate can then be calculated; Sperm motility: The semen sample is therefore examined to determine what proportion of sperm is motile and to what extent they move. Sperm can be classified as rapidly progressive i. The shape of the head, tail and mid-piece of up to sperm will be examined and their details recorded so that the proportion of morphologically normal sperm in the ejaculate can be calculated; pH: Normal seminal fluid will change to watery liquid within minutes of ejaculation; Vitality: Sperm are generally protected from these antibodies whilst in the testicles, however in men who have previously experienced testicular surgery or trauma, sperm antibodies may be found in the seminal fluid. In other cases the presence of sperm antibodies is unexplained. How is an abnormal semen analysis result determined? Oligozoospermia may result from environmental conditions e. In cases of unexplained infertility , intrauterine insemination is often instituted as first line treatment , however recent evidence from a large randomised controlled trial demonstrates that intrauterine insemination with or without ovarian stimulation is no more effective than expectant management waiting and seeing in terms of achieving conception ; Oligozoospermia: The likelihood of a successful intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcome are however reduced when the injected sperm is immotile; Teratozoospermia: Thus men with this condition have little chance of conceiving naturally, through intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilisation. Treatment with intracytoplasmic sperm injection is therefore indicated in these men; Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia: Where these treatments fail, the retrieval of sperm using surgical methods may enable successful intrauterine insemination, in vitro fertilisation or intracytoplasmic sperm injection; 4 Aspermia: Sperm preparation for assisted reproduction techniques Following retrieval, sperm will be taken to a laboratory for analysis or preparation for assisted reproductive techniques. The most common semen preparation techniques are: Discontinuous density gradient: Fresh semen is covered with a medium and placed in a cylinder which is laid at a 45 o C angle. Motile sperm in the ejaculate will then swim up to the top of the tube, leaving immotile sperm and debris in the lower part of the cylinder. Male infertility: The case for continued research. Med J Aust..

Sub-optimal sperm production is a condition in which a man fails to produce a sufficient quantity of sperm or produces sperm of a low quality e. When a man produces a low number of sperm, the concentration of sperm in the ejaculate is much lower than in a man with healthy sperm Sperm analysis instruments. The production of low quality sperm also reduces the chance of fertilisation. Low quality sperm are typically either immotile i. Sperm which are immotile cannot travel up the vaginal tract and into the uterus, and thus cannot Sperm analysis instruments and fertilise Sperm analysis instruments mature oocyte.

Those which are abnormally shaped may or may not be able to move, however even if they manage to travel to an oocyte, they will usually be unable to bind to and penetrate its shell and the couple will be unable to conceive as a result.

Foxxx Socks Watch Black bad girls scene Video Finding sex. Specialized system for toxicology centers working with mouse and rat. System constantly updated to include the ultimate state-of-the art technology and operating system available. Customized reports are supplied by Microptic, including letterhead, and any required results in the contents. Information request. New design New interface design much more likeable and user-friendly. Windows 10 Compatible with the last operating systems from Microsoft. Internal Quality Control Verification of the calibration and analysis settings. Microscope with phase contrast to visualize the sample. See hardware requirements. The most integral application for human andrology and IVF labs, sperm banks, fertility clinics, hospitals, etc. See editions comparison. Maintenance Annual maintenance service for software updates and technical support. Customized reports Custom reporting service that offers the ability to customize the report template. Documents and support. Sperm Analysis Standardization: Accurate and fast assessment, manually unattainable Hyperactivation: Automatic and rigorous assessment, far away to be attained by subjective observation Morphology: Accurate and complete sperm size and shape estimation Vitality: Accurately quantified Quality control: Internal and external QC available. External Quality control, as for instance, Fertaid compatible. Although these reference ranges are useful for epidemiological studies relating to men's health, it is dangerous to assume that they indicate either fertility or infertility except when they are at the extremes of the range. As Eliasson 2 pointed out nearly 40 years ago, conception relates to probabilities rather than reference ranges. Put another way, conception is related to probability not to the certainty that reference ranges would seem to indicate. It must also be remembered that controlling both male as well as female fertility is female fecundity—and this cannot be assessed from a semen analysis. It should also be pointed out again that semen analysis alone is a poor discriminator of fertility and cannot, except on relatively rare occasions, provide a diagnosis. That is, an abnormal semen analysis is not a diagnosis; it is just a physical sign. Thus, comments on the treatment of patients with an abnormal sperm count, even that below the fifth percentile, are misleading, given that a diagnosis cannot definitively be given in the laboratory. Overall, this edition of the WHO manual is very much improved relative to the earlier edition. It should be the standard reference manual for all laboratories that carry out semen analysis and similar procedures. The editors should be congratulated on producing such an improved version. Journal List Asian J Androl v. Asian J Androl. Published online Jan Anne M. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract This article reviews the latest edition of the World Health Organization's manual on semen analysis, a comprehensive instructional guide. Introduction For many years now the World Health Organization WHO manuals have served as a primary resource for seminal fluid analysis procedures. Part 1: Semen analysis This section begins with an overview of the process of semen analysis and points out that fertility or sperm production cannot be assessed on the basis of a single sample of semen. Collection of the semen sample In the section relating to the collection of a semen sample, the authors state that the sample should be collected in a room near the laboratory. Evaluation of the physical properties of semen This section examines the assessment of the physical properties of semen, such as liquefaction, viscosity, semen volume and seminal pH. Determination of sperm motility The next part of this section involves the assessment of sperm motility. Determination of sperm vitality This section describes the use of the eosin—nigrosin test to determine sperm vitality, an aspect of semen analysis that is important but often omitted by many laboratories. Counting spermatozoa in a semen sample Counting spermatozoa is often considered the most important part of semen analysis. Counting non-sperm cells The identification of white blood cells in a semen sample is important for the clinician. Assessment of sperm morphology This aspect of semen analysis is usually considered the most difficult one, and the manual properly describes it in greater detail. Testing for the presence of anti-sperm antibodies This area also makes up an important part of a semen analysis, and standard tests such as the 'mixed antiglobulin reaction MAR ' test and the immuno-bead test are described in detail. Optional procedures This section includes what are described as 'optional' procedures, including the calculation of many indices, mostly in the area of sperm morphology. Part 2: Sperm preparation The separation of spermatozoa from seminal plasma is now an important aspect of the work of an andrology laboratory. Part 3: Quality assurance This section describes the problem of quality assurance in relation to semen samples. Conclusions Overall, this edition of the WHO manual is very much improved relative to the earlier edition. References Jequier AM. Is quality assurance in semen analysis still really necessary? A clinician's viewpoint. The tail also provides the necessary motion for the sperm to bind to and penetrate an egg once it has been reached. In order to fertilise an egg and create an embryo, sperm must leave the testes and come into contact with a mature oocyte i. Typically a single ovarian follicle will prepare an oocyte for release during each ovulatory cycle , and thus, a single mature oocyte will be released each time a woman ovulates. The oocyte is released from the follicle where it has matured, then leaves the ovaries and travels to the uterus via the fallopian tubes , usually every 28 days. For fertilisation to occur, sperm must enter the fallopian tubes while the mature oocyte is also there i. Sperm leaves the testicles, via the epididymis and vas deferens i. The seminal fluid leaves the body via the urethral opening of the penis. If ejaculation occurs during unprotected sexual intercourse i. If the sperm are motile i. In many cases the woman will not be ovulating at the time of sexual intercourse, therefore no mature oocyte will be present in the fallopian tubes and fertilisation will not occur. The single celled embryo will then replicate to produce further 46 chromosome cells which will eventually form the foetus. It is this process of the egg and sperm combining their chromosomes which represents the end of the fertilisation process. It affects about one in twenty Australian men and is most commonly underpinned by sub-optimal sperm production. Sub-optimal sperm production is a condition in which a man fails to produce a sufficient quantity of sperm or produces sperm of a low quality e. When a man produces a low number of sperm, the concentration of sperm in the ejaculate is much lower than in a man with healthy sperm production. The production of low quality sperm also reduces the chance of fertilisation. Low quality sperm are typically either immotile i. Sperm which are immotile cannot travel up the vaginal tract and into the uterus, and thus cannot locate and fertilise a mature oocyte. Those which are abnormally shaped may or may not be able to move, however even if they manage to travel to an oocyte, they will usually be unable to bind to and penetrate its shell and the couple will be unable to conceive as a result. In a minority of cases of male factor infertility, sperm production occurs normally in the testicles, but difficulties arise in the process of ejaculating sperm. Some men completely fail to ejaculate and this may result from spinal cord injuries, injuries to the testicles, or testicular conditions such as infection or cryptorchidism. Other men will be able to ejaculate, however their seminal fluid will not contain sperm. These cases are most commonly caused by obstructions in the epididymis and vas deferens e. Male factor infertility can be diagnosed by a sperm analysis sperm count test. Regardless of the intended use, sperm is of optimal quality when it is fresh, so whenever possible should be retrieved around an hour before it will be used. The sample should be collected after not less than 48 hours and not more than 7 days of sexual abstinence. In cases where it is not practical or possible to retrieve sperm on the day of its intended us, sperm may be retrieved in advance, however it must then be cryopreserved and thawed immediately before use. The easiest and most common method is through ejaculation, however for men who are unable to ejaculate their sperm, or those who ejaculate only immotile sperm, there are also surgical and electro-stimulation techniques which are often successful in retrieving sperm. The collection of sperm from morning urine is also possible and while this technique has not yet been applied to infertility treatment, it is used to successfully retrieve sperm for other clinical purposes. Masturbation is the technique most commonly used to induce ejaculation for sperm retrieval purposes. It is a relatively simple technique, which the patient can perform without the assistance of a health professional. Masturbation provides a complete semen sample, which is important for both semen analysis testing and assisted reproduction, because the first quantity of seminal fluid expelled during ejaculation is typically of the best quality. Results will therefore be inaccurate or outcomes less than optimal, if this portion of the ejaculate is not captured. Masturbation is also the preferred technique for sperm retrieval because it provides a semen sample that is uncontaminated e. So that a man can induce ejaculation through masturbation in comfort and privacy, most infertility clinics provide a private room in which the man, and if necessary his partner, can perform masturbation. The semen specimen should then be handed immediately to the treating clinicians, who will record the date and time of ejaculation and store the semen sample at room temperature if it is to be used immediately, or cryopreserve it for future use. For men who find it difficult to achieve orgasm and ejaculate in the clinic environment, some clinics allow the male partner to complete sperm retrieval at home. There are no significant differences in pregnancy rates following intrauterine insemination when sperm is retrieved at home or in a clinic, as long as the sperm sample reaches the clinic quickly i. The time and date of collection should be recorded on the jar, immediately following ejaculation. The patient will be instructed to seal the container and ensure it is kept at room temperature until it reaches the clinic. Because sperm performs better when it is fresh, it is important that the sample reaches the clinic within one hour of ejaculation. For patients who are geographically remote from infertility clinics or do not have reliable forms of transport to reach the clinic, home retrieval is therefore not an option. Inducing ejaculation by engaging in sexual intercourse is generally not recommended for sperm retrieval purposes. In such cases, couples will be provided with a special condom to use to collect the semen sample. Couples will be advised not to use a standard condom as normal latex condoms affect the quality of the semen sample. Couples will also be advised against coitus interuptus i. This is because the best quality portion of the semen is ejaculated first and may not be captured using this technique, but also because vaginal fluid can affect the quality of the semen sample. For men who do not produce ejaculate, vibration or electro stimulation techniques are often effective in inducing ejaculation. They are relatively simple techniques which do not require anaesthetic, however they do require the assistance of a health professional and special medical equipment. The aim is to induce an ejaculation by stimulating ejaculatory reflexes. Electrical impulses are then sent through the probe to stimulate sensitive nerves in this region, which can induce an erection and ejaculation. When other sperm retrieval techniques fail, there are several surgical methods which can be used to retrieve sperm from either the epididymis or testicles. They are:. There is currently insufficient evidence to determine which of the sperm retrieval techniques have the best outcomes in terms of pregnancy rates or patient satisfaction. It involves examining a sample of freshly retrieved semen under a microscope and by conducting a range of tests. Semen analysis is most commonly performed manually, however computer assisted semen analysis can increase the accuracy of the assessment if specialised equipment is available..

In a minority Sperm analysis instruments cases of male factor infertility, sperm production occurs normally in the testicles, but difficulties arise in the process of ejaculating sperm. Some men completely fail to ejaculate and this may result from spinal cord injuries, injuries to the testicles, or testicular conditions such as infection or cryptorchidism.

Other men will be able to ejaculate, however their seminal fluid will not contain sperm. These cases are most commonly caused by obstructions in the epididymis and vas deferens e. Male factor infertility can be diagnosed by a sperm analysis sperm count test. Regardless of the intended use, sperm is of optimal quality when Sperm analysis instruments is fresh, so whenever Sperm analysis instruments should be retrieved around an hour before it will be used.

This article reviews the latest edition of the World Health Organization's manual on semen analysis, a comprehensive instructional guide. The methodology used in the assessment of the usual variables in semen analysis is described, as are many of the less common, but very valuable, Sperm analysis instruments function tests.

The sample should be collected after not less than 48 hours and not more than 7 days of sexual abstinence. In cases where it is not practical or possible to retrieve sperm on the day Sperm analysis instruments its intended us, sperm may be retrieved in advance, however it must then be cryopreserved and thawed immediately before use.

Semen Analysis (Sperm Count Testing)

The easiest and most common method is through ejaculation, however for men who are unable to ejaculate their sperm, or those who ejaculate only immotile sperm, there are also surgical and electro-stimulation techniques which are often successful in retrieving sperm. The collection of sperm from morning urine is also possible and while this technique has not yet been applied to infertility treatment, it is used to successfully retrieve sperm for other clinical purposes.

Masturbation is the technique most commonly used to induce ejaculation for sperm retrieval purposes. It is a relatively simple technique, which the patient can perform without the assistance of a health professional. Masturbation provides a complete semen sample, which is important for both semen analysis testing and assisted reproduction, because the first quantity of seminal fluid expelled during ejaculation is typically of the best quality.

Results will therefore be Sperm analysis instruments or outcomes less than optimal, if this portion of the ejaculate is not captured. Masturbation is also the preferred technique for sperm retrieval because it provides a semen sample that is uncontaminated e. So that a man can induce ejaculation through masturbation in comfort and privacy, most infertility clinics provide a private room in which the man, and if necessary his partner, can perform masturbation.

The semen specimen should then be handed immediately to the treating clinicians, who will record the date and time of Sperm analysis instruments and store Sperm analysis instruments semen sample at room temperature if it is to be used immediately, or cryopreserve it for future use. For men who find it difficult to achieve orgasm and ejaculate in the clinic environment, some clinics allow the male partner to complete sperm retrieval at home.

There are no significant differences Sperm analysis instruments pregnancy rates following intrauterine insemination when sperm is retrieved at home or in a clinic, as long as the sperm sample reaches the clinic quickly i. The time and date Sperm analysis instruments collection should be recorded on the jar, immediately following ejaculation. The patient will be instructed to seal the container and ensure it is kept mature natural tits Big room temperature until it reaches the clinic.

Because sperm performs better when it is fresh, it is important that the sample reaches the clinic within one hour of ejaculation. For patients who are geographically remote from infertility clinics or do not have reliable forms of transport to reach the clinic, home retrieval is therefore not an option. Inducing ejaculation by Sperm analysis instruments in sexual intercourse is generally not recommended for sperm retrieval purposes.

In such cases, couples will be provided with Sperm analysis instruments special condom to use to collect the semen sample.

Sperm analysis instruments

Couples will be Sperm analysis instruments not to use a standard condom as normal latex condoms affect the quality of the semen sample. Couples will also be advised against coitus interuptus i. This is because the best quality portion of the semen is ejaculated first and may not be captured using this technique, but also because vaginal fluid can affect the Sperm analysis instruments of the semen sample.

For men who do not produce ejaculate, vibration or electro stimulation techniques are often effective in inducing ejaculation. They are relatively simple techniques more info do not require anaesthetic, however they do require the assistance of a health professional and special medical equipment.

The aim is to induce an ejaculation by stimulating ejaculatory reflexes. Electrical impulses are then sent through the probe to stimulate sensitive nerves in this region, which can induce an erection and ejaculation. When other sperm retrieval techniques fail, there are several surgical methods which can be used to retrieve sperm from either the epididymis or testicles. They are:. There is more info insufficient evidence to determine which of the sperm retrieval techniques have the best outcomes in terms of pregnancy rates or patient satisfaction.

It involves examining a sample Sperm analysis instruments freshly retrieved semen under a microscope and by conducting a range of tests. Semen analysis is most commonly performed manually, however computer assisted semen analysis can increase the accuracy of the assessment if specialised equipment is available.

Microscopic investigation involves a highly trained professional placing a small amount of sperm onto a slide and examining it under a microscope. The results are compared to reference values published by the World Health Organisation. Semen analysis testing investigates a number of Sperm analysis instruments of the seminal Sperm analysis instruments and the sperm it contains including:.

The results of a semen analysis test will be compared to reference values determined by the World Health Organisation WHO.

When conducting semen analysis testing it is important to remember that assessment of the entire population Sperm analysis instruments sperm in a sample of Sperm analysis instruments does not determine whether or not a man has the capacity to conceive naturally i.

A man with low sperm concentration still has the capacity to conceive naturally, although his likelihood of conception will be reduced compared to a man with a higher Sperm analysis instruments of sperm. When one or more of the test values fall outside the WHO criteria, a repeat semen analysis test is usually conducted ideally 3 months after the first test to confirm the result. Semen quality can vary considerably over time, due to the health, lifestyle and environmental conditions of Sperm analysis instruments man whose semen is being analysed.

Based on the results of semen analysis testing, a man will be given a sperm classification, using the following standard terminology:. Following retrieval, sperm will be taken to a laboratory for analysis or preparation for assisted reproductive techniques. As a semen sample potentially contains dangerous viruses e. Sperm preparation is a procedure in which the most viable sperm in an ejaculate i.

This is because these components of the suspension are thought to impair the fertilisation process. Following separation, the motile sperm are re-suspended to form a solution with a high concentration of sperm.

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There are a range of techniques which can be used to prepare sperm and the technique used will depend upon the assisted reproductive technique procedure and the quality of Sperm analysis instruments semen sample.

The link use different techniques, however are similar in that they all aim to separate viable from non-viable sperm.

Nude becky Watch Nude girls walking on the beach Video Porno Incet. Looking for a practitioner? HealthEngine helps you find the practitioner you need. Find your practitioner. What are you looking for? Search for articles. Popular searches How can I relieve my back pain? Pregnancy and Lifestyle. Sexual Health. What are sperm? The role of sperm in fertilisation Male factor infertility What is sperm retrieval and when is it performed? How can sperm be retrieved? Ejaculation — mastubation Ejaculation — sexual intercourse Vibration or electro stimulation Surgical removal Semen analysis sperm count testing How is an abnormal semen analysis result determined? Treatment options for sub-optimal sperm production Sperm preparation for assisted reproduction techniques What are sperm? The role of sperm in fertilisation In order to fertilise an egg and create an embryo, sperm must leave the testes and come into contact with a mature oocyte i. What is sperm retrieval and when is it performed? Ejaculation — sexual intercourse Inducing ejaculation by engaging in sexual intercourse is generally not recommended for sperm retrieval purposes. Vibration or electro stimulation For men who do not produce ejaculate, vibration or electro stimulation techniques are often effective in inducing ejaculation. Surgical removal When other sperm retrieval techniques fail, there are several surgical methods which can be used to retrieve sperm from either the epididymis or testicles. They are: Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration MESA: A needle is then inserted into a suitable area of the scrotum and sperm are aspirated into the needle. The procedure is usually performed under local anaesthetic; Percutaneous epididymal sperm extraction PESE: This is the simplest surgical sperm retrieval procedure and is performed under local anaesthetic, however does not always result in a sufficient quantity of sperm being retrieved; Fine needle aspiration FNA: It is a simple technique however generally results in only a few sperm being retrieved, meaning that sperm cannot be cryopreserved for future use; Testicular sperm extraction TESE - Open Testicular Biopsy: The scrotum and testes are cut open, before testicular tissues are cut away and examined for sperm, which, if present can be extracted. Semen analysis testing investigates a number of characteristics of the seminal fluid and the sperm it contains including: Volume of ejaculate: The concentration of sperm per ml of ejaculate can then be calculated; Sperm motility: The semen sample is therefore examined to determine what proportion of sperm is motile and to what extent they move. Sperm can be classified as rapidly progressive i. The shape of the head, tail and mid-piece of up to sperm will be examined and their details recorded so that the proportion of morphologically normal sperm in the ejaculate can be calculated; pH: Normal seminal fluid will change to watery liquid within minutes of ejaculation; Vitality: Sperm are generally protected from these antibodies whilst in the testicles, however in men who have previously experienced testicular surgery or trauma, sperm antibodies may be found in the seminal fluid. In other cases the presence of sperm antibodies is unexplained. How is an abnormal semen analysis result determined? Oligozoospermia may result from environmental conditions e. In cases of unexplained infertility , intrauterine insemination is often instituted as first line treatment , however recent evidence from a large randomised controlled trial demonstrates that intrauterine insemination with or without ovarian stimulation is no more effective than expectant management waiting and seeing in terms of achieving conception ; Oligozoospermia: The likelihood of a successful intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcome are however reduced when the injected sperm is immotile; Teratozoospermia: Thus men with this condition have little chance of conceiving naturally, through intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilisation. Treatment with intracytoplasmic sperm injection is therefore indicated in these men; Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia: Where these treatments fail, the retrieval of sperm using surgical methods may enable successful intrauterine insemination, in vitro fertilisation or intracytoplasmic sperm injection; 4 Aspermia: Sperm preparation for assisted reproduction techniques Following retrieval, sperm will be taken to a laboratory for analysis or preparation for assisted reproductive techniques. The most common semen preparation techniques are: Discontinuous density gradient: Fresh semen is covered with a medium and placed in a cylinder which is laid at a 45 o C angle. Motile sperm in the ejaculate will then swim up to the top of the tube, leaving immotile sperm and debris in the lower part of the cylinder. Male infertility: The case for continued research. Med J Aust. Hirsch A. Male subfertility. Cambridge University Press; Clinical guideline: Assessment and treatment for people with fertility problems [online]. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Available from URL: External Quality control, as for instance, Fertaid compatible. Software yearly update Compatible with last operating systems available: User can define the diagnosis criteria, as well as prescription or recommendable treatment. This will be automatically included in the final results and reports Large number of species can be analysed: All software updates and quality control available at all times Ready for ISO We are very happy with the fast replies and support we are getting from the company and also about the system itself. It is very user friendly. System SCA, Microptic gives objective and fast analysis. Software is easy and friendly to use. A lot of my friends have got surprised when I decided to bring the SCA to my clinic as it was a little bit more expensive than some systems which were already exist in my city that time but I decided to use SCA , and now after 8 years using SCA , I am proud of taking that decision and I am ready to take it again if I have the choice. Thank you all , the team of Microptics, of being always very helpful. Tareq Sharif , Alamal Fertility Centre. Mictoptic S. L is a professional Comp. I do recommend SCA systems for the easiest, accurate, and configurable systems. Eventually, Microptic S. Shadi Alnakhaleh , Roche. I recommend this product Hiva Alipour , Aalborg University. Easy to use and very good quality report. We are using the SCA systems for 5 years and still ongoing. Before that period we used a glass camera for semen analysis and manual counting. It recommends the use of a chamber of at least 20 microns deep for this type of analysis, as shallower chambers may impede sperm movement. This section describes a simple and easy technique for detecting motility without introducing errors. This section describes the use of the eosin—nigrosin test to determine sperm vitality, an aspect of semen analysis that is important but often omitted by many laboratories. This is accompanied by very nice pictures of spermatozoa, both positively and negatively stained. Another vitality test that is included in this edition is the hypo-osmotic swelling HOS test. This procedure is becoming increasingly useful, not only in detecting the vitality of the spermatozoa in semen analysis but also in determining the selection of spermatozoa for ICSI. Counting spermatozoa is often considered the most important part of semen analysis. However, it is in fact only one part, and all the facets of semen quality must be examined if the analysis is to be of any substantive value to the clinician. The manual describes several types of chambers as well as each of the grids. As many counting chambers are now available and they are generally expensive, the section on their care is an important and welcome addition to the manual. The very good description of the use of these chambers and the methods for calculating sperm count is valuable. Today, too few laboratories take enough care in the diagnosis of azoospermia, and centrifugation is rarely carried out. The identification of white blood cells in a semen sample is important for the clinician. As it is often impossible to differentiate these cells from germinal cells, the manual's explanation of the counting of these cells is valuable. This aspect of semen analysis is usually considered the most difficult one, and the manual properly describes it in greater detail. The concept of normal spermatozoa is discussed, and the staining of slides is described in some detail. The preferred stains are named, and the make-up of these stains is also included. Also included in this section is a methodology for the use of the peroxidase stain, which positively identifies white blood cells. Unlike many of the earlier editions of the manual, there is now a large collection of photomicrographs depicting many of the morphological abnormalities of spermatozoa, germinal cells and white blood cells, as well as a group of morphologically diverse spermatozoa that are considered to be 'normal'. This inclusion will be of great value to many newcomers in the field of semen analysis, and the editors of the manual are to be congratulated on their careful selection of these illustrations. This area also makes up an important part of a semen analysis, and standard tests such as the 'mixed antiglobulin reaction MAR ' test and the immuno-bead test are described in detail. The use of indirect tests is also carefully described, as this is often very confusing to many new laboratory scientists engaged in semen analysis. This section includes what are described as 'optional' procedures, including the calculation of many indices, mostly in the area of sperm morphology. However, many of these tests are not carried out by routine laboratories largely owing to a lack of expertise in this field as well as their expense. In this section, the assessment of the post-coital test can also be found; surprisingly, even the 'donated' mucus is mentioned. Biochemical assays including the measurement of fructose, zinc and epididymal glucosidase are outlined. These are valuable, as many laboratories no longer have the time or money to carry out these clinically important tests. There is also a substantial section on the detection and measurement of reactive oxygen species, an area that is clearly gaining importance in the understanding of semen pathology. Attention is also given to execution and application of sperm—oocyte interaction as well as the use of an assessment to measure the acrosome reaction. These procedures are illustrated by high-quality photomicrographs. Overall, every important test used in semen analysis is covered in Part 1, and the clarity and simplicity of the presentation is excellent. The separation of spermatozoa from seminal plasma is now an important aspect of the work of an andrology laboratory. Such an exercise may be needed to prepare spermatozoa for tests of functioning or for the use of such spermatozoa in a treatment regime for example, intrauterine insemination. All the commonly used methods are simply described and included in this part of the manual, as are the means of handling HIV-infected semen samples. The preparation of testicular and epididymal spermatozoa are also described in this section, together with the methodology needed to collect spermatozoa from men with retrograde ejaculation. Methods of cryopreservation are also described, although a slightly extended section on this procedure, particularly including the physiology of freezing, may have been beneficial for beginners..

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Semen Analysis

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Sperm Class Analyzer® CASA System

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Sexual Health. What are sperm?

Instruments

The role of sperm in fertilisation Male factor infertility What is sperm retrieval and when is it performed? How can sperm be retrieved?

Sperm is the male gametethat is, the male sex cellor the cell in males which has the capacity to Sperm analysis instruments an egg i. Sperm are produced in the seminiferous tubes of the testes.

Ejaculation — mastubation Ejaculation — sexual intercourse Vibration or electro stimulation Surgical removal Semen analysis sperm count testing How is Sperm analysis instruments abnormal semen analysis result determined? Treatment options for sub-optimal sperm production Sperm preparation for assisted reproduction techniques What are sperm?

Sperm analysis instruments

The role of sperm in fertilisation In order to fertilise an egg and create an embryo, sperm must leave the testes and come into contact with a mature oocyte i. What is sperm retrieval and when is it performed?

Ejaculation — sexual intercourse Inducing ejaculation by engaging in Sperm analysis instruments intercourse is generally not recommended for sperm retrieval purposes.

Sperm analysis instruments

YO is an FDA approved home sperm test that allows you to check your sperm quality in the privacy of your home. Including sperm count Sperm analysis instruments motility.

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Click to learn. Sperm analysis instruments · Products · Canine; Semen Analysis. Semen Analysis. Sperm Vision® SAR: CASA software with PC and monitor.

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