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The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century: The Golden Age. New York". Archived from the original on 14 January Retrieved 14 January Digital History. London Review of Books. Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands. Archived from the original on 7 December Retrieved 7 December Retrieved 28 October Retrieved 2 October Allies Set For Offensive. Universal Newsreel. Retrieved 21 February Retrieved 8 September Archived from the original PDF on 15 February Retrieved 4 February Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Rijks Universiteit Groningen. Archived from the original on 5 July Archived from the original on 6 January Retrieved 21 January Archived from the original on 26 December Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 30 June Retrieved 10 October Tol February Floods, flood management and climate change in The Netherlands. Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit. Archived from the original on 22 October Risk Analysis. Retrieved on 21 August The New York Times. Retrieved 19 February Retrieved 25 December NRC Handelsblad in Dutch. Retrieved 11 November Glimpses of Europe: Gyan Publishing House. De Volkskrant. Archived from the original on 23 February International Business Times. Retrieved 26 March Geert Wilders". Retrieved 12 June Der Spiegel in German. The Washington Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 10 July Retrieved 21 April The Guardian. The Associated Press. Retrieved 12 March CBS Classifications in Dutch. Retrieved 25 July Archived from the original on 3 November Retrieved 7 June Eerste kamer der Staten-Generaal. Retrieved 15 October De openbare lichamen vallen rechtstreeks onder het Rijk omdat zij geen deel uitmaken van een provincie. The Dutch legislation will be introduced gradually. The public bodies fall directly under the central government because they are not part of a province. Retrieved 21 November Statistics Netherlands. Retrieved 13 October Area and Climate". Central Bureau of Statistics Netherlands Antilles. Archived from the original on 6 July Retrieved 11 June Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 18 October Archived from the original on 11 August Archived from the original on 7 August Retrieved 26 April Archived from the original PDF on 4 June The Global Innovation Index Energizing the World with Innovation. Retrieved 22 April Retrieved 10 June Retrieved 21 March Archived from the original on 5 December Retrieved 22 May Toerisme en congreswezen". Archived from the original on 15 February Retrieved 15 February Archived from the original on 8 February World Economic Forum. Archived from the original on 10 December Archived from the original on 7 September International Energy Agency. Energy Research Center of the Netherlands. European Environmental Agency. Holland is a world-leading supplier of sustainable, healthy, agri-food products". Polder and wiser". The Economist. The Economist Group. Retrieved 29 August Agricultural situation" PDF. Retrieved 20 June Leidschendam, the Netherlands: July Archived from the original PDF on 15 April New Drivers in Mobility: What Moves the Dutch in and Beyond? PDF Report. Delft, the Netherlands: Archived from the original PDF on 17 January Central Intelligence Agency. The World Bank Group. Retrieved 8 December Archived from the original on 24 September Archived from the original on 14 July European Commission. December Archived PDF from the original on 8 September Retrieved 29 December BBC News. Archived from the original on 7 March March Archived PDF from the original on 5 February Retrieved 11 July Archived from the original on 17 July Port of Rotterdam. Retrieved 1 June Nederlandse Omroep Stichting. Archived from the original on 9 January Retrieved 9 January The Verge. Vox Media, Inc. Retrieved on 8 March Retrieved 2 July Multiple names: Archived from the original on 19 October Ons Amsterdam. Retrieved 9 April Retrieved 12 August Archived from the original on 28 April Library of Congress. Retrieved 23 November Archived from the original on 30 September Retrieved 15 September Official languages per country". Retrieved 23 April Archived from the original on 21 February Retrieved 9 September The PDF file can be accessed at the bottom of the page. The relevant citation is on the page Dit dialect valt onder het zogenaamde Ripuarisch. Declaration contained in the instrument of acceptance, deposited on 2 May — Or. Archived from the original PDF on 28 January Wat is het aanbod aan vreemde talen in de onderbouw van het voortgezet onderwijs vo? Archived from the original on 29 April Retrieved 3 May Religieuze betrokkenheid van bevolkingsgroepen, — PDF. Centraal Bureau voor der Statistiek. Retrieved 3 April God in Nederland Ten Have. Retrieved 30 July Retrieved 27 January Dossier Relige. Central Bureau of Statistics, Netherlands. Retrieved 30 March Archived from the original PDF on 25 January Retrieved 17 May February Retrieved 18 March Archived from the original on 10 January Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek: Retrieved 16 May Archived from the original on 3 March The UnDutchables: An observation of the Netherlands, its culture and its inhabitants 3rd Ed. White-Boucke Publishing. Vossenstein, Dealing with the Dutch, Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau Den Haag. Retrieved 15 June — via https: Retrieved 15 June Archived from the original on 4 February Retrieved 30 June Dutch Daily News. Business Models of an Emerging Global Medium. Routledge; Archived from the original on 25 September Retrieved 21 August Archived from the original on 12 August New York: Reuters U. Retrieved 1 September Boston, MA: Oxfam America. Empires and Colonies. One of the foundations of its wealth was the colonial trade. Pendleton, Devon; Serafin, Tatiana 30 August The World's Richest Royals". Retrieved 5 March The Dutch Power in Kerala, — Mittal Publications. Beekman Publisher: Periplus, Book review. Coming to terms with Calvinism, colonies and the war. Being "Dutch" in the Indies: Of the , so-called Dutch 'repatriants' only 92, were expatriate Dutchmen born in the Netherlands. Willems, Wim De uittocht uit Indie — Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, pp. Indisch is een gevoel, de tweede en derde generatie Indische Nederlanders. Retrieved 19 May Burke, Gerald L. The making of Dutch towns: A study in urban development from the 10th—17th centuries Lambert, Audrey M. The Making of the Dutch Landscape: An Historical Geography of the Netherlands ; focus on the history of land reclamation Meijer, Henk. Compact geography of the Netherlands Riley, R. Paul Arblaster. A History of the Low Countries. Palgrave Macmillan, Blom and E. Lamberts, eds. History of the Low Countries Jonathan Israel. The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall — J. Kossmann-Putto and E. The Low Countries: History of the Northern and Southern Netherlands Holland Compared 2nd edition — 95 page booklet by Holland's commercial website, with facts and figures about the Netherlands, comparing the country's economic indicators with those of other countries. Netherlands at Wikipedia's sister projects. Part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Years in the Netherlands —present. Pre Links to related articles. Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe. Retrieved 23 June Sydney Morning Herald. Kelly Gardiner. Archived from the original on December 10, Radio New Zealand. Indra Publishing. The Sound of Confusion. Pirates Privateers Timeline of piracy Pirate films Women in piracy Fictional pirates Pirates in popular culture List of ships attacked by Somali pirates. Return to Treasure Island. Category Portal. Convicts in Australia..

– in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the. Most of the areas Catherine holland land of venus sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century.

The emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Ezili Dantor · Catherine Flon. Tourists flock to places like Disney World which is the most visited vacation resort in the world, and of course there is Spring Break, Woo! The swampy Everglades National Park are home to alligators, crocodiles, manatees and panthers. Most likely your morning orange juice was made with Florida oranges as the state produces most of the citrus fruits in the country.

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An International Encyclopedia, Volume 1. The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century: The Golden Age. New York".

Archived from the original on 14 January Catherine holland land of venus 14 January Digital History. London Review of Books. Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands. Archived from the original on 7 December Retrieved 7 December Retrieved 28 October Retrieved 2 October Allies Set For Offensive.

Universal Newsreel. Retrieved 21 February Retrieved 8 September Archived from the original PDF on 15 February Retrieved 4 February Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Rijks Universiteit Groningen. Archived from the original on 5 July Archived from the original on 6 January Retrieved 21 January Archived from the original on 26 December Boston Globe.

Archived from the original on Catherine holland land of venus June Retrieved 10 October Tol February Floods, flood management and climate change in The Netherlands. Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit.

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Archived from the original on 22 October Risk Analysis. Retrieved on 21 August The New York Times. Retrieved 19 February Retrieved 25 December NRC Handelsblad in Dutch. Retrieved 11 November Glimpses of Europe: Gyan Publishing House.

De Volkskrant. Archived from the Catherine holland land of venus on 23 February International Business Times. Retrieved 26 March Geert Wilders". Retrieved 12 June Der Spiegel in German.

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Sexxy sex Watch Free sex tara bank scene Video Actar Sruthihasanxxx. Tourism is king in Florida and the industry employs more than a million people. Tourists flock to places like Disney World which is the most visited vacation resort in the world, and of course there is Spring Break, Woo! The swampy Everglades National Park are home to alligators, crocodiles, manatees and panthers. Most likely your morning orange juice was made with Florida oranges as the state produces most of the citrus fruits in the country. Retrieved 10 May Retrieved 18 June Retrieved 3 August Retrieved 31 March The Daily Telegraph. Columbia Encyclopedia. Columbia University Press. Retrieved 1 February The Promised Lands: University of Pennsylvania Press. The New Cambridge Modern History: Volume 2, The Reformation, — Retrieved 11 March Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Background to beakers: Extra text: Open Access Leiden University. Faculty of Archaeology, Leiden. Archived from the original PDF on 10 October Retrieved 7 July Prometheus, , pp. Retrieved 6 October Retrieved 28 February I, pp. PhD thesis , Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen, p. Why did they leave? Why did they stay? On continuity versus discontinuity from Roman times to Early Middle Ages in the western coastal area of the Netherlands. Walter de Gruyter. The Dawn of Dutch: Language contact in the Western Low Countries before John Benjamins Publishing Company. History of the Low Countries. Berghahn Books. The Role of Power and Tradition , Amsterdam: Amsterdam University, pp. Een wereldstad in de middeleeuwen , Walburg Pers, Zutphen, pp. Atlas of Medieval Europe. Retrieved 9 October The Rise of the Dutch Republic, Volume 2. Beggars, Iconoclasts, and Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the Dutch Revolt. The Age of Reason Begins: The Causes of War: Volume III: Bloomsbury Publishing. The Rise of the Dutch Republic Vol. III, Harper Bros.: New York, p. The Age of Wars of Religion, Greenwood Publishing Group. An International Encyclopedia, Volume 1. The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century: The Golden Age. New York". Archived from the original on 14 January Retrieved 14 January Digital History. London Review of Books. Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands. Archived from the original on 7 December Retrieved 7 December Retrieved 28 October Retrieved 2 October Allies Set For Offensive. Universal Newsreel. Retrieved 21 February Retrieved 8 September Archived from the original PDF on 15 February Retrieved 4 February Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Rijks Universiteit Groningen. Archived from the original on 5 July Archived from the original on 6 January Retrieved 21 January Archived from the original on 26 December Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 30 June Retrieved 10 October Tol February Floods, flood management and climate change in The Netherlands. Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit. Archived from the original on 22 October Risk Analysis. Retrieved on 21 August The New York Times. Retrieved 19 February Retrieved 25 December NRC Handelsblad in Dutch. Retrieved 11 November Glimpses of Europe: Gyan Publishing House. De Volkskrant. Archived from the original on 23 February International Business Times. Retrieved 26 March Geert Wilders". Retrieved 12 June Der Spiegel in German. The Washington Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 10 July Retrieved 21 April The Guardian. The Associated Press. Retrieved 12 March CBS Classifications in Dutch. Retrieved 25 July Archived from the original on 3 November Retrieved 7 June Eerste kamer der Staten-Generaal. Retrieved 15 October De openbare lichamen vallen rechtstreeks onder het Rijk omdat zij geen deel uitmaken van een provincie. The Dutch legislation will be introduced gradually. The public bodies fall directly under the central government because they are not part of a province. Retrieved 21 November Statistics Netherlands. Retrieved 13 October Area and Climate". Central Bureau of Statistics Netherlands Antilles. Archived from the original on 6 July Retrieved 11 June Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 18 October Archived from the original on 11 August Archived from the original on 7 August Retrieved 26 April Archived from the original PDF on 4 June The Global Innovation Index Energizing the World with Innovation. Retrieved 22 April Retrieved 10 June Retrieved 21 March Archived from the original on 5 December Retrieved 22 May Toerisme en congreswezen". Archived from the original on 15 February Retrieved 15 February Archived from the original on 8 February World Economic Forum. Archived from the original on 10 December Archived from the original on 7 September International Energy Agency. Energy Research Center of the Netherlands. European Environmental Agency. Holland is a world-leading supplier of sustainable, healthy, agri-food products". Polder and wiser". The Economist. The Economist Group. Retrieved 29 August Agricultural situation" PDF. Retrieved 20 June Leidschendam, the Netherlands: July Archived from the original PDF on 15 April New Drivers in Mobility: What Moves the Dutch in and Beyond? PDF Report. Delft, the Netherlands: Archived from the original PDF on 17 January Central Intelligence Agency. The World Bank Group. Retrieved 8 December Archived from the original on 24 September Archived from the original on 14 July European Commission. December Archived PDF from the original on 8 September Retrieved 29 December BBC News. Archived from the original on 7 March March Archived PDF from the original on 5 February Retrieved 11 July Archived from the original on 17 July Port of Rotterdam. Retrieved 1 June Nederlandse Omroep Stichting. Archived from the original on 9 January Retrieved 9 January The Verge. Vox Media, Inc. Retrieved on 8 March Retrieved 2 July Multiple names: Archived from the original on 19 October Ons Amsterdam. Retrieved 9 April Retrieved 12 August Archived from the original on 28 April Library of Congress. Retrieved 23 November Archived from the original on 30 September Retrieved 15 September Official languages per country". Retrieved 23 April Archived from the original on 21 February Retrieved 9 September The PDF file can be accessed at the bottom of the page. The relevant citation is on the page Dit dialect valt onder het zogenaamde Ripuarisch. Declaration contained in the instrument of acceptance, deposited on 2 May — Or. Archived from the original PDF on 28 January Wat is het aanbod aan vreemde talen in de onderbouw van het voortgezet onderwijs vo? Archived from the original on 29 April Retrieved 3 May Religieuze betrokkenheid van bevolkingsgroepen, — PDF. Centraal Bureau voor der Statistiek. Retrieved 3 April God in Nederland Ten Have. Retrieved 30 July Retrieved 27 January Dossier Relige. Central Bureau of Statistics, Netherlands. Retrieved 30 March Archived from the original PDF on 25 January Retrieved 17 May February Retrieved 18 March Archived from the original on 10 January Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek: Retrieved 16 May Archived from the original on 3 March The UnDutchables: An observation of the Netherlands, its culture and its inhabitants 3rd Ed. White-Boucke Publishing. Vossenstein, Dealing with the Dutch, Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau Den Haag. Retrieved 15 June — via https: Retrieved 15 June Archived from the original on 4 February Retrieved 30 June Dutch Daily News. Business Models of an Emerging Global Medium. Routledge; Archived from the original on 25 September Retrieved 21 August Archived from the original on 12 August New York: Reuters U. Retrieved 1 September Boston, MA: Oxfam America. Empires and Colonies. One of the foundations of its wealth was the colonial trade. Pendleton, Devon; Serafin, Tatiana 30 August The World's Richest Royals". Retrieved 5 March James Blackburn Francis Greenway. The Transports Our Country's Good Authority control LCCN: Retrieved from " https: Hidden categories: All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from September CS1: Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. This page was last edited on 13 March , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Seven years' transportation to New South Wales. Griselda Soler Entrenamientos personalizados. Iris Kyle - Ms. Olympia and Ms. BeastBuns Jacquelyn Hickerson. Jacquelyn Beastbuns Hickerson beastbuns - Instagram. Jaime Koeppe - Heartist king of the north. Jennifer Reichek - YouTube. Jennifer West jenniferwestofficial - Instagram. Jenny Andersson - Body training, fitness and health. Fitness Girls featuring Jill Rudison. JoHaana Morgan - YouTube. Juliet Muscle Goddess - YouTube. 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The Associated Press. Retrieved 12 March CBS Classifications in Dutch.

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Retrieved 25 July Archived from the original on 3 November Retrieved 7 June Eerste kamer der Staten-Generaal. Retrieved 15 October De openbare lichamen vallen rechtstreeks onder het Rijk omdat zij geen deel uitmaken van een provincie.

The Dutch legislation will be introduced gradually. The public bodies fall directly under the central government because they are not part of a province. Retrieved 21 November Statistics Netherlands. Catherine holland land of venus 13 October Area and Climate". Central Bureau of Statistics Netherlands Antilles. Archived from the Catherine holland land of venus on 6 July Retrieved 11 June Central Bureau of Statistics.

Retrieved 18 October Archived from the original on 11 August Archived from the original on 7 August Retrieved 26 April Archived from the original PDF on 4 June The Global Innovation Index Energizing the World with Innovation.

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Energy Research Center of the Netherlands. European Environmental Agency. Holland is a world-leading supplier of sustainable, healthy, agri-food products". Polder and wiser". The Economist. The Economist Group. Retrieved 29 August Agricultural situation" PDF.

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Retrieved 20 June Leidschendam, the Netherlands: July Archived from Catherine holland land of venus original PDF on 15 April New Drivers in Mobility: What Moves the Dutch in and Beyond? PDF Report. Delft, the Netherlands: Archived from the original PDF on 17 January Central Intelligence Agency.

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Retrieved 1 June Nederlandse Omroep Stichting. Archived from the original on 9 January Retrieved 9 January The Verge. Vox Media, Inc. Retrieved on 8 March Retrieved 2 July Multiple names: Archived from the original on 19 October Ons Amsterdam. Retrieved 9 April Retrieved 12 August Catherine holland land of venus Archived from the original on 28 April Library of Congress.

Retrieved 23 November Archived from Catherine holland land of venus original on 30 September Retrieved 15 September Official languages per country". Retrieved 23 April Archived from the original on 21 February Retrieved 9 September The PDF file can be accessed at the bottom of the page. The relevant citation is on the page Dit dialect valt onder het zogenaamde Ripuarisch.

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Archived from the original on 29 April Retrieved 3 May Religieuze betrokkenheid van bevolkingsgroepen, — PDF. Centraal Bureau voor der Statistiek.

Ijarayales Xxx Watch Gentlemans clubs strip clubs Video Xvideos spain. Updated Daily. Search Obituaries from more than 1, Newspapers worldwide. The state of Florida is a peninsula surrounded by water which features the longest coastline in the lower 48 states. Florida is also the most hurricane-prone state in the country. The Netherlands has, at some time in recent history, supplied one quarter of all of the world's exported tomatoes, and trade of one-third of the world's exports of chilis , tomatoes and cucumbers goes through the country. The Netherlands also exports one-fifteenth of the world's apples. Aside from that, a significant portion of Dutch agricultural exports consists of fresh-cut plants, flowers, and flower bulbs, with the Netherlands exporting two-thirds of the world's total. Mobility on Dutch roads has grown continuously since the s and now exceeds billion km travelled per year, [] three quarters of which are done by car. Trains are frequent, with two trains per hour on lesser lines, [j] two to four trains per hour on average, and up to eight trains an hour on the busiest lines. Cycling is a ubiquitous mode of transport in the Netherlands. Almost as many kilometres are covered by bicycle as by train. There are large bicycle parking facilities, particularly in city centres and at train stations. The Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, with the rivers Meuse and Rhine providing excellent access to the hinterland upstream reaching to Basel , Switzerland, and into Germany and France. As of [update] , Rotterdam was the world's eighth largest container port handling The harbour functions as an important transit point for bulk materials and between the European continent and overseas. From Rotterdam goods are transported by ship, river barge, train or road. In , the Betuweroute , a new fast freight railway from Rotterdam to Germany, was completed. Schiphol Airport , just southwest of Amsterdam, is the main international airport in the Netherlands, and the third busiest airport in Europe in terms of passengers. In , the Royal Schiphol Group airports handled 70 million passengers. The rollout will be undertaken by Switzerland-based power and automation company ABB and Dutch startup Fastned, and will aim to provide at least one station within a kilometre radius 30 miles from every home in the Netherlands. The Netherlands had an estimated population of 17,, as of January It is the 63rd most populous country in the world. Between and , the country's population almost doubled from 5. From to , the population further increased, to The fertility rate in the Netherlands is 1. Life expectancy is high in the Netherlands: According to a estimate, the population was The Dutch are the tallest people in the world, [] with an average height of 1. According to Eurostat , in there were 1. Of these, 1. The Netherlands is the 24th most densely populated country in the world, with The Randstad is the country's largest conurbation located in the west of the country and contains the four largest cities: According to Dutch Central Statistics Bureau, in , 28 percent of Dutch population had a spendable income above 40, euros which does not include spendings on health care or education. The official language is Dutch , which is spoken by the vast majority of the inhabitants. In the European part of the kingdom two other regional languages are recognised under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. The first of these recognised regional languages is Low Saxon Nedersaksisch in Dutch. Low Saxon consists of several dialects spoken in the north and east, like Twents in the region of Twente , and Drents in the province of Drenthe. Secondly, Limburgish is also recognised as a regional language. It consists of Dutch varieties of Meuse-Rhenish Franconian languages and is spoken in the south-eastern province of Limburg. Ripuarian language , which is spoken in Kerkrade and Vaals in the form of, respectively, the Kerkrade dialect and the Vaals dialect [] [] is not recognised as a regional language of the Netherlands. These dialects are however sometimes considered to be a part of or related to Limburgish. English has a formal status in the special municipalities of Saba and Sint Eustatius. It is widely spoken on these islands. Papiamento has a formal status in the special municipality of Bonaire. Yiddish and the Romani language were recognised in as non-territorial languages. In higher level secondary schools HAVO and VWO , the acquisition of two additional modern foreign language skills is mandatory during the first three years. Only during the last three years in VWO one foreign language is mandatory. Besides English, the standard modern languages are French and German , although schools can replace one of these modern languages with Chinese , Spanish , Russian , Italian , Turkish or Arabic. Religious identification in the Netherlands [6]. The Dutch are one of the least religious people in the world. Religion in the Netherlands was predominantly Christianity until late into the 20th century. Although religious diversity remains, there has been a decline of religious adherence. Groups that represent the non-religious in the Netherlands include Humanistisch Verbond. Christians comprised the Islam comprised the 4. The Constitution of the Netherlands guarantees freedom of education, which means that all schools that adhere to general quality criteria receive the same government funding. This includes schools based on religious principles by religious groups especially Roman Catholic and various Protestant. By , Protestantism shrunk demographically to equal Roman Catholicism, and going onwards, both Christian branches began to decline. There is one major exception: Islam which grew considerably as the result of immigration. Since the year there has been raised awareness of religion, mainly due to Muslim extremism. The Dutch royal family has been traditionally associated with Calvinism , specifically the disestablished and now non-existent Dutch Reformed Church which merged into the Protestant Church in the Netherlands. The Dutch Reformed Church has been the only major Protestant church in the Netherlands from the Protestant Reformation up until the 19th century. It encompassed the vast majority of Protestants in the Reformed tradition until a series of splits in and in diversified Dutch Calvinism. In , a Roman Catholic became Queen consort. Christianity is currently the largest religion in the Netherlands. The provinces of North Brabant and Limburg have historically been strongly Roman Catholic, and some of their people might still consider the Catholic Church as a base for their cultural identity. Protestantism in the Netherlands consists of a number of churches within various traditions. Several orthodox Reformed and liberal churches did not merge into the PKN. Although in the Netherlands as a whole Christianity has become a minority, the Netherlands contains a Bible Belt from Zeeland to the northern parts of the province Overijssel , in which Protestant particularly Reformed beliefs remain strong, and even has majorities in municipal councils. Islam is the second largest religion in the state. This included migrants from former Dutch colonies , such as Surinam and Indonesia , but mainly migrant workers from Turkey and Morocco. Most of these are Indo-Surinamese. There are also sizable populations of Hindu immigrants from India and Sri Lanka , and some Western adherents of Hinduism-oriented new religious movements such as Hare Krishnas. The Netherlands has an estimated , Buddhists or people strongly attracted to this religion, mainly ethnic Dutch people. There are about 45, Jews in the Netherlands. Education in the Netherlands is compulsory between the ages of 5 and All children in the Netherlands usually attend elementary school from on average ages 4 to It comprises eight grades, the first of which is facultative. Based on an aptitude test, the eighth grade teacher's recommendation and the opinion of the pupil's parents or caretakers, a choice is made for one of the three main streams of secondary education. After completing a particular stream, a pupil may still continue in the penultimate year of the next stream. The VMBO has 4 grades and is subdivided over several levels. Successfully completing the vmbo results in a low-level vocational degree that grants access to the MBO. The MBO middle-level applied education is a form of education primarily focuses on teaching a practical trade, or a vocational degree. The HBO higher professional education are universities of professional education applied sciences that award professional bachelor's degrees; similar to polytechnic degrees. A HBO degree gives access to the university system. The VWO comprising atheneum and gymnasium has 6 grades and prepares for studying at a research university. Universities offer of a three-year bachelor's degree, followed by a one or two year master's degree, which in turn can be followed by a four or five-year doctoral degree program. Doctoral candidates in the Netherlands are generally non-tenured employees of a university. All Dutch schools and universities are publicly funded and managed with the exception of religious schools that are publicly funded but not managed by the state even though requirements are necessary for the funding to be authorised. Dutch universities have a tuition fee of about 2, euros a year for students from the Netherlands and the European Union. The amount is about 10, euros for non-EU students. In , the Netherlands has maintained its number one position at the top of the annual Euro health consumer index EHCI , which compares healthcare systems in Europe, scoring of a maximum 1, points. The Netherlands has been among the top three countries in each report published since Ever since a major reform of the health care system in , the Dutch system received more points in the Index each year. According to the HCP Health Consumer Powerhouse , the Netherlands has 'a chaos system', meaning patients have a great degree of freedom from where to buy their health insurance, to where they get their healthcare service. The difference between the Netherlands and other countries is that the chaos is managed. Healthcare decisions are being made in a dialogue between the patients and healthcare professionals. Health insurance in the Netherlands is mandatory. Healthcare in the Netherlands is covered by two statutory forms of insurance:. While Dutch residents are automatically insured by the government for AWBZ, everyone has to take out their own basic healthcare insurance basisverzekering , except those under 18 who are automatically covered under their parents' premium. If a person decides not to carry out an insurance coverage, the person may be fined. Insurers have to offer a universal package for everyone over the age of 18 years, regardless of age or state of health — it's illegal to refuse an application or impose special conditions. In contrast to many other European systems, the Dutch government is responsible for the accessibility and quality of the healthcare system in the Netherlands, but not in charge of its management. Healthcare in the Netherlands can be divided in several ways: Home doctors huisartsen , comparable to general practitioners form the largest part of the first echelon. Being referenced by a member of the first echelon is mandatory for access to the second and third echelon. Healthcare in the Netherlands is financed by a dual system that came into effect in January Long-term treatments, especially those that involve semi-permanent hospitalisation, and also disability costs such as wheelchairs, are covered by a state-controlled mandatory insurance. For all regular short-term medical treatment, there is a system of obligatory health insurance , with private health insurance companies. These insurance companies are obliged to provide a package with a defined set of insured treatments. A key feature of the Dutch system is that premiums may not be related to health status or age. Risk variances between private health insurance companies due to the different risks presented by individual policy holders are compensated through risk equalisation and a common risk pool. Children under 18 are covered for free. Those on low incomes receive compensation to help them pay their insurance. The Netherlands has had many well-known painters. Escher is a well-known graphics artist. Willem de Kooning was born and trained in Rotterdam , although he is considered to have reached acclaim as an American artist. The Netherlands is the country of philosophers Erasmus of Rotterdam and Spinoza. The Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens — discovered Saturn 's moon Titan , argued that light travelled as waves, invented the pendulum clock and was the first physicist to use mathematical formulae. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was the first to observe and describe single-celled organisms with a microscope. Hooft as the two most famous writers. In the 19th century, Multatuli wrote about the poor treatment of the natives in the Dutch colony, the current Indonesia. Anne Frank 's Diary of a Young Girl was published after she died in the Holocaust and translated from Dutch to all major languages. The traditional Dutch architecture is especially valuated in Amsterdam , Delft and Leiden , with 17 and 18th century buildings along the canals. Smaller village architecture with wooden houses is found in Zaandam and Marken. A similar Holland Village is being built in Shenyang , China. Windmills , tulips , wooden shoes , cheese, Delftware pottery, and cannabis are among the items associated with the Netherlands by tourists. The Netherlands has a long history of social tolerance and today is regarded as a liberal country, considering its drug policy and its legalisation of euthanasia. On 1 April , the Netherlands became the first nation to legalise same-sex marriage. Dutch society is egalitarian and modern. The Dutch have an aversion to the non-essential. The Dutch are proud of their cultural heritage , rich history in art and involvement in international affairs. According to a humorous source on Dutch culture, "Their directness gives many the impression that they are rude and crude — attributes they prefer to call openness. Asking about basic rules will not be considered impolite. The Netherlands is one of the most secular countries of Europe, and religion is in the Netherlands generally considered as a personal matter which is not supposed to be propagated in public, although it often remains a discussion subject. The Netherlands has the reputation of the leader country in environmental and population management. Sustainability is a concept important for the Dutch. The goal of the Dutch Government is to have a sustainable , reliable and affordable energy system, by , in which CO 2 emissions have been halved and 40 percent of electricity is derived from sustainable sources. The government is investing billions of euros in energy efficiency , sustainable energy and CO 2 reduction. The Netherlands has multiple music traditions. Traditional Dutch music is a genre known as " Levenslied ", meaning Song of life , to an extent comparable to a French Chanson or a German Schlager. These songs typically have a simple melody and rhythm, and a straightforward structure of couplets and choruses. Themes can be light, but are often sentimental and include love , death and loneliness. Traditional musical instruments such as the accordion and the barrel organ are a staple of levenslied music, though in recent years many artists also use synthesisers and guitars. Contemporary Dutch rock and pop music Nederpop originated in the s, heavily influenced by popular music from the United States and Britain. In the s and s the lyrics were mostly in English, and some tracks were instrumental. As of the s, more and more pop musicians started working in the Dutch language, partly inspired by the huge success of the band Doe Maar. Today Dutch rock and pop music thrives in both languages, with some artists recording in both. Trijntje Oosterhuis , one of the country's most well know and versatile singers, has made multiple albums with famous American composers Vince Mendoza and Burt Bacharach. Early s Dutch and Belgian house music came together in Eurodance project 2 Unlimited. Selling 18 million records, [] the two singers in the band are the most successful Dutch music artists to this day. Tracks like " Get Ready for This " are still popular themes of U. In the mid s Dutch language rap and hip hop Nederhop also came to fruition and has become popular in the Netherlands and Belgium. Since the s, Dutch electronic dance music EDM gained widespread popularity in the world in many forms, from trance , techno and gabber to hardstyle. The Amsterdam Dance Event ADE is the world's leading electronic music conference and the biggest club festival for the many electronic subgenres on the planet. In classical music , Jan Sweelinck ranks as the Dutch most famous composer, with Louis Andriessen amongst the best known living Dutch classical composers. Ton Koopman is a Dutch conductor, organist and harpsichordist. He is also professor at the Royal Conservatory of The Hague. The latter, together with his Johann Strauss Orchestra , has taken classical and waltz music on worldwide concert tours, the size and revenue of which are otherwise only seen from the world's biggest rock and pop music acts. The most famous Dutch classical composition is " Canto Ostinato " by Simeon ten Holt , a minimalistic composition for multiple instruments. Film director Theo van Gogh achieved international notoriety in when he was murdered by Mohammed Bouyeri in the streets of Amsterdam after directing the short film Submission. The Netherlands has a well developed television market, with both multiple commercial and public broadcasters. Imported TV programmes, as well as interviews with responses in a foreign language, are virtually always shown with the original sound and subtitled. Only foreign shows for children are translated. TV exports from the Netherlands mostly take the form of specific formats and franchises, most notably through internationally active TV production conglomerate Endemol , founded by Dutch media tycoons John de Mol and Joop van den Ende. Headquartered in Amsterdam , Endemol has around 90 companies in over 30 countries. Endemol and its subsidiaries create and run reality, talent, and game show franchises worldwide, including Big Brother and Deal or No Deal. John de Mol later started his own company Talpa which created show franchises like The Voice and Utopia. Approximately 4. About two-thirds of the population between 15 and 75 participates in sports weekly. Tennis, gymnastics and golf are the three most widely engaged in individual sports. Organisation of sports began at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Federations for sports were established such as the speed skating federation in , rules were unified and sports clubs came into existence. A Dutch National Olympic Committee was established in Thus far, the nation has won medals at the Summer Olympic Games and another medals at the Winter Olympic Games. In international competition, Dutch national teams and athletes are dominant in several fields of sport. The Netherlands women's field hockey team is the most successful team in World Cup history. The Netherlands baseball team have won the European championship 20 times out of 32 events. The Dutch speed skaters' performance at the Winter Olympics , where they won 8 out of 12 events, 23 out of 36 medals, including 4 clean sweeps, is the most dominant performance in a single sport in Olympic history. Motorcycle racing at the TT Assen Circuit has a long history. Assen is the only venue to have held a round of the Motorcycle World Championship every year since its creation in The circuit was purpose built for the Dutch TT in , with previous events having been held on public roads. The coastal resort of Zandvoort hosted the Dutch Grand Prix from to The volleyball national men's team has also been successful, winning the silver medal at the Summer Olympics and the gold medal four years later in Atlanta. The biggest success of the women's national team was winning the European Championship in and the World Grand Prix in Originally, the country's cuisine was shaped by the practices of fishing and farming , including the cultivation of the soil for growing crops and raising domesticated animals. Dutch cuisine is simple and straightforward, and contains many dairy products. Breakfast and lunch are typically bread with toppings, with cereal for breakfast as an alternative. Traditionally, dinner consists of potatoes, a portion of meat, and seasonal vegetables. The Dutch diet was relatively high in carbohydrates and fat, reflecting the dietary needs of the labourers whose culture moulded the country. Without many refinements, it is best described as rustic, though many holidays are still celebrated with special foods. In the course of the twentieth century this diet changed and became much more cosmopolitan , with most global cuisines being represented in the major cities. Modern culinary writers distinguish between three general regional forms of Dutch cuisine. The regions in the northeast of the Netherlands, roughly the provinces of Groningen , Friesland , Drenthe , Overijssel and Gelderland north of the great rivers are the least populated areas of the Netherlands. The late 18th century introduction of large scale agriculture means that the cuisine is generally known for its many kinds of meats. The relative lack of farms allowed for an abundance of game and husbandry , though dishes near the coastal regions of Friesland, Groningen and the parts of Overijssel bordering the IJsselmeer also include a large amount of fish. The various dried sausages, belonging to the metworst -family of Dutch sausages are found throughout this region and are highly prized for their often very strong taste. Also smoked sausages are common, of which Gelderse rookworst is the most renowned. The sausage contains a lot of fat and is very juicy. Larger sausages are often eaten alongside stamppot , hutspot or zuurkool sauerkraut ; whereas smaller ones are often eaten as a street food. The provinces are also home to hard textured rye bread , pastries and cookies, the latter heavily spiced with ginger or succade or contain small bits of meat. Notable characteristics of Fries roggebrood Frisian rye bread is its long baking time up to 20 hours , resulting in a sweet taste and a deep dark colour. As a coastal region, Friesland is home to low-lying grasslands, and thus has a cheese production in common with the Western cuisine. Friese Nagelkaas Friesian Clove is a notable example. Because of the abundance of water and flat grass lands that are found here, the area is known for its many dairy products, which includes prominent cheeses such as Gouda , Leyden spiced cheese with cumin , Edam traditionally in small spheres as well as Leerdammer and Beemster , while the adjacent Zaanstreek in North Holland is since the 16th century known for its mayonnaise , typical whole-grain mustards [] and chocolate industry. Zeeland and South Holland produce a lot of butter, which contains a larger amount of milkfat than most other European butter varieties. A by-product of the butter-making process, karnemelk buttermilk , is also considered typical for this region. Seafood such as soused herring , mussels called Zeeuwse Mossels , since all Dutch mussels for consumption are cleaned in Zeeland's Oosterschelde , eels , oysters and shrimps are widely available and typical for the region. Kibbeling , once a local delicacy consisting of small chunks of battered white fish , has become a national fast food , just as lekkerbek. Pastries in this area tend to be quite doughy, and often contain large amounts of sugar; either caramelised, powdered or crystallised. The oliebol in its modern form and Zeeuwse bolus are good examples. Cookies are also produced in great number and tend to contain a lot of butter and sugar, like stroopwafel , as well as a filling of some kind, mostly almond, like gevulde koek. The traditional alcoholic beverages of this region are beer strong pale lager and Jenever , a high proof juniper -flavored spirit, that came to be known in England as gin. A noted exception within the traditional Dutch alcoholic landscape, Advocaat , a rich and creamy liqueur made from eggs, sugar and brandy, is also native to this region. It is renowned for its many rich pastries, soups, stews and vegetable dishes and is often called Burgundian which is a Dutch idiom invoking the rich Burgundian court which ruled the Low Countries in the Middle Ages, renowned for its splendor and great feasts. It is the only Dutch culinary region that developed an haute cuisine. Pastries are abundant, often with rich fillings of cream, custard or fruits. Savoury pastries also occur, with the worstenbroodje a roll with a sausage of ground beef , literally translates into sausage bread being the most popular. The traditional alcoholic beverage of the region is beer. There are many local brands, ranging from Trappist to Kriek. Beer, like wine in French cuisine, is also used in cooking; often in stews. In early , Oxfam ranked the Netherlands as the country with the most nutritious, plentiful and healthy food, in a comparison of countries. From the exploitations of the Dutch East India Company in the 17th century, to the colonisations in the 19th century, Dutch imperial possessions continued to expand, reaching their greatest extent by establishing a hegemony of the Dutch East Indies in the early 20th century. The Dutch East Indies, which later formed modern-day Indonesia, was one of the most valuable European colonies in the world and the most important one for the Netherlands. In the Dutch Golden Age of the 17th century, the Netherlands urbanised considerably, mostly financed by corporate revenue from the Asian trade monopolies. Social status was based on merchants' income, which reduced feudalism and considerably changed the dynamics of Dutch society. When the Dutch royal family was established in , much of its wealth came from Colonial trade. Afterward, they established ports in Dutch occupied Malabar , leading to Dutch settlements and trading posts in India. However, their expansion into India was halted, after their defeat in the Battle of Colachel by the Kingdom of Travancore , during the Travancore-Dutch War. The Dutch never recovered from the defeat and no longer posed a large colonial threat to India. Universities such as the Leiden University , founded in the 16th century, have developed into leading knowledge centres for Southeast Asian and Indonesian studies. Leiden University and in particular KITLV are educational and scientific institutions that to this day share both an intellectual and historical interest in Indonesian studies. Other scientific institutions in the Netherlands include the Amsterdam Tropenmuseum , an anthropological museum with massive collections of Indonesian art, culture, ethnography and anthropology. A specific segment of Dutch literature called Dutch Indies literature still exists and includes established authors, such as Louis Couperus , the writer of "The Hidden Force", taking the colonial era as an important source of inspiration. The majority of Dutchmen that repatriated to the Netherlands after and during the Indonesian revolution are Indo Eurasian , native to the islands of the Dutch East Indies. This relatively large Eurasian population had developed over a period of years and were classified by colonial law as belonging to the European legal community. Including their second generation descendants, Indos are currently the largest foreign-born group in the Netherlands. Many Indonesian dishes and foodstuffs have become commonplace in the Netherlands. Rijsttafel , a colonial culinary concept, and dishes such as Nasi goreng and satay are very popular in the Netherlands. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the constituent country. For the sovereign state, including its territories, see Kingdom of the Netherlands. For all other uses, see Netherlands disambiguation. Not to be confused with the internal region of Holland , or the more inclusive term Low Countries. Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Europe. Coat of arms. West Frisian Papiamento English [d]. Limburgish Dutch Low Saxon [d]. Main article: Terminology of the Low Countries. History of the Netherlands. Main articles: Diachronic distribution of Celtic people from BC. Category Portal. Convicts in Australia. James Blackburn Francis Greenway. The Transports Our Country's Good Authority control LCCN: Retrieved from " https: Hidden categories: All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from September CS1: Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. This page was last edited on 13 March , at Gert YouTube Sixty9shots - dutch female muscle. Difforme - under the sentence of female domination. 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Retrieved 3 April God in Nederland Ten Have. Retrieved 30 July Retrieved 27 January Dossier Relige.

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Central Bureau of Statistics, Netherlands. Retrieved 30 March Archived from the original PDF on 25 January Retrieved 17 May February Retrieved 18 March Archived from the original on 10 January Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek: Retrieved 16 May Archived from Catherine holland land of venus original on 3 March The UnDutchables: An observation of the Netherlands, its culture and its inhabitants 3rd Ed.

White-Boucke Publishing. Vossenstein, Dealing with the Dutch, Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau Den Haag. Retrieved 15 June — via https: Retrieved 15 June Archived from the original on 4 February Retrieved 30 Catherine holland land of venus Dutch Daily News. Business Models of an Emerging Global Medium. Routledge; Archived from click here original on 25 September Retrieved 21 August Archived from the original on 12 August New York: Reuters U.

Retrieved 1 September Boston, MA: Oxfam America. Empires and Colonies. One of the foundations of its wealth was the colonial trade. Pendleton, Devon; Catherine holland land of venus, Tatiana 30 August The World's Richest Royals".

Retrieved 5 March The Dutch Power in Kerala, — Mittal Publications. Beekman Publisher: Periplus, Book review. Coming to terms with Calvinism, colonies and the war. Being "Dutch" in the Indies: Of theso-called Dutch 'repatriants' only 92, were expatriate Dutchmen born in the Netherlands. Willems, Wim De uittocht uit Indie — Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, pp. Indisch is een gevoel, de tweede en derde generatie Indische Nederlanders. Retrieved 19 May Burke, Gerald L. The making of Dutch towns: A study in urban development from the 10th—17th centuries Lambert, Audrey M.

The Making of the Dutch Landscape: An Historical Geography of the Netherlands ; focus on the history of land reclamation Meijer, Henk. Compact geography of the Netherlands Riley, R. Paul Arblaster. A History of the Low Countries. Palgrave Macmillan, Blom and E.

Blackgirls sexy Watch Nude india girls clab Video Sex Bolywoods. The initial phase of the Elp culture was characterised by tumuli — BC that were strongly tied to contemporary tumuli in northern Germany and Scandinavia, and were apparently related to the Tumulus culture in central Europe. The subsequent phase was that of cremating the dead and placing their ashes in urns which were then buried in fields, following the customs of the Urnfield culture — BC. The southern region became dominated by the related Hilversum culture — BC , which apparently inherited cultural ties with Britain of the previous Barbed-Wire Beaker culture. Iron ore brought a measure of prosperity, and was available throughout the country, including bog iron. Smiths travelled from settlement to settlement with bronze and iron, fabricating tools on demand. The King's grave of Oss BC was found in a burial mound, the largest of its kind in western Europe and containing an iron sword with an inlay of gold and coral. The deteriorating climate in Scandinavia around BC, that further deteriorated around BC, might have triggered migration of Germanic tribes from the North. By the time this migration was complete, around BC, a few general cultural and linguistic groups had emerged. They would later develop into the Frisii and the early Saxons. This group consisted of tribes that would eventually develop into the Salian Franks. Some scholars have speculated that even a third ethnic identity and language, neither Germanic nor Celtic, survived in the Netherlands until the Roman period, the Iron Age Nordwestblock culture, [42] [43] that eventually was being absorbed by the Celts to the south and the Germanic peoples from the east. The first author to describe the coast of Holland and Flanders was the Greek geographer Pytheas , who noted in c. The Rhine became fixed as Rome's northern frontier around 12 AD. Notable towns would arise along the Limes Germanicus: Nijmegen and Voorburg. The area to the north of the Rhine, inhabited by the Frisii, remained outside Roman rule but not its presence and control , while the Germanic border tribes of the Batavi and Cananefates served in the Roman cavalry. The Batavi later merged with other tribes into the confederation of the Salian Franks, whose identity emerged at the first half of the third century. They were forced by the confederation of the Saxons from the east to move over the Rhine into Roman territory in the fourth century. Roman forces pacified the region, but did not expel the Franks, who continued to be feared at least until the time of Julian the Apostate , when Salian Franks were allowed to settle as foederati in Toxandria. After Roman government in the area collapsed, the Franks expanded their territories in numerous kingdoms. By the s, Clovis I had conquered and united all these territories in the southern Netherlands in one Frankish kingdom , and from there continued his conquests into Gaul. During this expansion, Franks migrating to the south eventually adopted the Vulgar Latin of the local population. To the north of the Franks, climatic conditions on the coast improved, and during the Migration Period the abandoned land was resettled again, mostly by Saxons , but also by the closely related Angles , Jutes and ancient Frisii. By the seventh century a Frisian Kingdom — under King Aldegisel and King Redbad emerged with Utrecht as its centre of power, [51] [52] while Dorestad was a flourishing trading place. In , at the Battle of the Boarn , the Frisians were defeated after a series of wars. He established the Archdiocese of Utrecht and became bishop of the Frisians. However, his successor Boniface was murdered by the Frisians in Dokkum , in However, as of , it was divided into three parts— East , Middle , and West Francia. Most of present-day Netherlands became part of Middle Francia , which was a weak kingdom and subject of numerous partitions and annexation attempts by its stronger neighbours. It comprised territories from Frisia in the north to the Kingdom of Italy in the south. After he died in , Lotharingia was partitioned, into Upper and Lower Lotharingia , the latter part comprising the Low Countries that technically became part of East Francia in , although it was effectively under the control of Vikings, who raided the largely defenceless Frisian and Frankish towns lying on the Frisian coast and along the rivers. The Viking raids made the sway of French and German lords in the area weak. Resistance to the Vikings, if any, came from local nobles, who gained in stature as a result, and that laid the basis for the disintegration of Lower Lotharingia into semi-independent states. One of these local nobles was Gerolf of Holland , who assumed lordship in Frisia after he helped to assassinate Godfrid, and Viking rule came to an end. The Holy Roman Empire the successor state of East Francia and then Lotharingia ruled much of the Low Countries in the 10th and 11th century, but was not able to maintain political unity. Powerful local nobles turned their cities, counties and duchies into private kingdoms, that felt little sense of obligation to the emperor. Holland , Hainaut , Flanders , Gelre , Brabant , and Utrecht were in a state of almost continual war or paradoxically formed personal unions. The language and culture of most of the people who lived in the County of Holland were originally Frisian. The rest of Frisia in the north now Friesland and Groningen continued to maintain its independence and had its own institutions collectively called the " Frisian freedom " and resented the imposition of the feudal system. Around AD, due to several agricultural developments, the economy started to develop at a fast pace, and the higher productivity allowed workers to farm more land or to become tradesmen. Towns grew around monasteries and castles , and a mercantile middle class began to develop in these urban areas, especially in Flanders and later also Brabant. Wealthy cities started to buy certain privileges for themselves from the sovereign. In practice, this meant that Brugge and Antwerp became quasi-independent republics in their own right and would later develop into some of the most important cities and ports in Europe. Around AD, farmers from Flanders and Utrecht began draining and cultivating uninhabited swampy land in the western Netherlands, and made the emergence of the County of Holland as centre of power possible. Hoekse en Kabeljauwse twisten between and The Cod faction consisted of the more progressive cities, while the Hook faction consisted of the conservative noblemen. Most of the Imperial and French fiefs in what is now the Netherlands and Belgium were united in a personal union by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy in Before the Burgundian union, the Dutch identified themselves by the town they lived in or their local duchy or county. The Burgundian period is when the road to nationhood began. The new rulers defended Dutch trading interests, which then developed rapidly. The fleets of the County of Holland defeated the fleets of the Hanseatic League several times. Amsterdam grew and in the 15th century became the primary trading port in Europe for grain from the Baltic region. Amsterdam distributed grain to the major cities of Belgium, Northern France and England. This trade was vital, because Holland could no longer produce enough grain to feed itself. Land drainage had caused the peat of the former wetlands to reduce to a level that was too low for drainage to be maintained. Under Habsburg Charles V , ruler of the Holy Roman Empire and King of Spain , all fiefs in the current Netherlands region were united into the Seventeen Provinces , which also included most of present-day Belgium, Luxembourg, and some adjacent land in what is now France and Germany. The level of ferocity exhibited by both sides can be gleaned from a Dutch chronicler's report: On more than one occasion men were seen hanging their own brothers, who had been taken prisoners in the enemy's ranks A Spaniard had ceased to be human in their eyes. On one occasion, a surgeon at Veer cut the heart from a Spanish prisoner, nailed it on a vessel's prow, and invited the townsmen to come and fasten their teeth in it, which many did with savage satisfaction. The Duke of Alba ruthlessly attempted to suppress the Protestant movement in the Netherlands. Severed heads and decapitated corpses were displayed along streets and roads to terrorize the population into submission. Alba boasted of having executed 18,, [57] but this figure does not include those who perished by war and famine. The first great siege was Alba's effort to capture Haarlem and thereby cut Holland in half. It dragged on from December to the next summer, when Haarlemers finally surrendered on 13 July upon promise that the city would be spared from being sacked. It was a stipulation Don Fadrique was unable to honor, when his soldiers mutinied, angered over pay owed and the miserable conditions they endured during the long, cold months of the campaign. The citizens resisted, but were overcome; seven thousand of them were mowed down; a thousand buildings were torched; men, women, and children were slaughtered in a delirium of blood by soldiers crying, "Santiago! A sangre, a carne, a fuego, a sacco! To blood, to the flesh, to fire, to sack! Following the sack of Antwerp , delegates from Catholic Brabant, Protestant Holland and Zeeland agreed, at Ghent, to join Utrecht and William the Silent in driving out all Spanish troops and forming a new government for the Netherlands. Don Juan of Austria , the new Spanish governor, was forced to concede initially, but within months returned to active hostilities. As the fighting restarted, the Dutch began to look for help from the Queen of England, but she initially stood by her commitments to the Spanish in the Treaty of Bristol of The result was that when the next large-scale battle did occur at Gembloux in , the Spanish forces easily won the day, killing at least 10, rebels, with the Spanish suffering few losses. Opposing them, the northern half of the Seventeen Provinces forged the Union of Utrecht also of in which they committed to support each other in their defence against the Spanish army. Spanish troops sacked Maastricht in , killing over 10, civilians and thereby ensuring the rebellion continued. The Protestant Queen Elizabeth I of England sympathised with the Dutch struggle against the Spanish, and sent an army of 7, soldiers to aid the Dutch in their war with the Catholic Spanish. Parts of the southern provinces became de facto colonies of the new republican-mercantile empire. After declaring their independence, the provinces of Holland , Zeeland , Groningen , Friesland , Utrecht , Overijssel , and Gelderland formed a confederation. All these duchies, lordships and counties were autonomous and had their own government, the States-Provincial. The States General , the confederal government, were seated in The Hague and consisted of representatives from each of the seven provinces. The sparsely populated region of Drenthe was part of the republic too, although it was not considered one of the provinces. Their population was mainly Roman Catholic, and these areas did not have a governmental structure of their own, and were used as a buffer zone between the Republic and the Spanish-controlled Southern Netherlands. In the Dutch Golden Age , spanning much of the 17th century, the Dutch Empire grew to become one of the major seafaring and economic powers, alongside Portugal, Spain, France and England. Science, military, and art especially painting were among the most acclaimed in the world. By , the Dutch owned 16, merchant ships. The Dutch settlement in North America began with the founding of New Amsterdam on the southern part of Manhattan in Dutch colonies in South America were established along the many rivers in the fertile Guyana plains, among them Colony of Surinam now Suriname. Many economic historians regard the Netherlands as the first thoroughly capitalist country in the world. In early modern Europe it had the wealthiest trading city Amsterdam and the first full-time stock exchange. The inventiveness of the traders led to insurance and retirement funds as well as phenomena such as the boom-bust cycle , the world's first asset-inflation bubble , the tulip mania of —, and the world's first bear raider , Isaac le Maire , who forced prices down by dumping stock and then buying it back at a discount. At sea it could successfully prevent the English and French navy entering the western shores. On land, however, it was almost taken over internally by the advancing French and German armies coming from the east. It managed to turn the tide by inundating parts of Holland , but could never recover to its former glory again and went into a state of general decline in the 18th century, with economic competition from England and long-standing rivalries between the two main factions in Dutch society, the republican Staatsgezinden and the supporters of the stadtholder the Prinsgezinden , as main political factions. With the armed support of revolutionary France , Dutch republicans proclaimed the Batavian Republic , modelled after the French Republic and rendering the Netherlands a unitary state on 19 January The stadtholder William V of Orange had fled to England. But from to , the Kingdom of Holland was set up by Napoleon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom governed by his brother Louis Bonaparte to control the Netherlands more effectively. However, King Louis Bonaparte tried to serve Dutch interests instead of his brother's, and he was forced to abdicate on 1 July The Emperor sent in an army and the Netherlands became part of the French Empire until the autumn of , when Napoleon was defeated in the Battle of Leipzig. William Frederick , son of the last stadtholder, returned to the Netherlands in and proclaimed himself Sovereign Prince of the Netherlands. Two years later, the Congress of Vienna added the southern Netherlands to the north to create a strong country on the northern border of France. William Frederick raised this United Netherlands to the status of a kingdom and proclaimed himself as King William I in In addition, William became hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg in exchange for his German possessions. However, the Southern Netherlands had been culturally separate from the north since , and rebelled. The south gained independence in as Belgium recognised by the Northern Netherlands in as the Kingdom of the Netherlands was created by decree , while the personal union between Luxembourg and the Netherlands was severed in , when William III died with no surviving male heirs. Ascendancy laws prevented his daughter Queen Wilhelmina from becoming the next Grand Duchess. The policy brought the Dutch enormous wealth and made the colony self-sufficient. The Netherlands abolished slavery in , [70] as the last country in Europe to do so. The Dutch were also one of the last European countries to industrialise , in the second half of the 19th century. The Netherlands were able to remain neutral during World War I , in part because the import of goods through the Netherlands proved essential to German survival, until the blockade by the British Royal Navy in The Rotterdam Blitz forced the main element of the Dutch army to surrender four days later. During the occupation, over , Dutch Jews [74] were rounded up and transported to Nazi extermination camps ; only a few of them survived. Dutch workers were conscripted for forced labour in Germany, civilians who resisted were killed in reprisal for attacks on German soldiers, and the countryside was plundered for food. Although there were thousands of Dutch who risked their lives by hiding Jews from the Germans, over 20, Dutch fascists joined the Waffen SS , [75] fighting on the Eastern Front. On 8 December , the Dutch government-in-exile in London declared war on Japan, [77] but could not prevent the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies Indonesia. In , the Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands reformed the political structure of the Netherlands, which was a result of international pressure to carry out decolonisation. Indonesia had declared its independence in August recognised in , and thus was never part of the reformed Kingdom. Suriname followed in After the war the Netherlands left behind an era of neutrality and gained closer ties with neighboring states. Government-encouraged emigration efforts to reduce population density prompted some , Dutch people to leave the country after the war. Youths, and students in particular, rejected traditional mores and pushed for change in matters such as women's rights , sexuality , disarmament and environmental issues. In , the euro was introduced as fiat money and in , the Netherlands Antilles was dissolved. Referendums were held on each island to determine their future status. This led to the incorporation of these three islands into the country of the Netherlands as special municipalities upon the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles. The special municipalities are collectively known as the Caribbean Netherlands. Most of the areas below sea level are man-made, caused by peat extraction or achieved through land reclamation. Since the late 16th century, large polder areas are preserved through elaborate drainage systems that include dikes , canals and pumping stations. Much of the country was originally formed by the estuaries of three large European rivers: The south-western part of the Netherlands is to this day a river delta of these three rivers, the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta. The European Netherlands is divided into north and south parts by the Rhine, the Waal , its main tributary branch, and the Meuse. In the past these rivers functioned as a natural barrier between fiefdoms and hence historically created a cultural divide, as is evident in some phonetic traits that are recognisable on either side of what the Dutch call their "Great Rivers" de Grote Rivieren. Just like the previous, this river forms a linguistic divide: Over the centuries, the Dutch coastline has changed considerably as a result of natural disasters and human intervention. Most notable in terms of land loss was the storm of [ citation needed ] , which created the archipelago of Zeeland in the south-west. On 14 December , St. Lucia's flood affected the Netherlands and Germany, killing more than 50, people in one of the most destructive floods in recorded history. The huge North Sea flood of early February caused the collapse of several dikes in the south-west of the Netherlands; more than 1, people drowned in the flood. The Dutch government subsequently instituted a large-scale programme, the " Delta Works ", to protect the country against future flooding, which was completed over a period of more than thirty years. The impact of disasters was, to an extent, increased through human activity. Relatively high-lying swampland was drained to be used as farmland. The drainage caused the fertile peat to contract and ground levels to drop, upon which groundwater levels were lowered to compensate for the drop in ground level, causing the underlying peat to contract further. Additionally, until the 19th century peat was mined, dried, and used for fuel, further exacerbating the problem. Centuries of extensive and poorly controlled peat extraction lowered an already low land surface by several metres. Even in flooded areas, peat extraction continued through turf dredging. To guard against floods, a series of defences against the water were contrived. In the first millennium AD , villages and farmhouses were built on man-made hills called terps. Later, these terps were connected by dikes. In the 12th century, local government agencies called " waterschappen " "water boards" or " hoogheemraadschappen " "high home councils" started to appear, whose job it was to maintain the water level and to protect a region from floods; these agencies continue to exist. As the ground level dropped, the dikes by necessity grew and merged into an integrated system. By the 13th century windmills had come into use to pump water out of areas below sea level. The windmills were later used to drain lakes, creating the famous polders. The Netherlands is one of the countries that may suffer most from climate change. Not only is the rising sea a problem, but erratic weather patterns may cause the rivers to overflow. After the disaster , the Delta Works was constructed, which is a comprehensive set of civil works throughout the Dutch coast. The project started in and was largely completed in with the completion of the Maeslantkering. Since then, new projects have been periodically started to renovate and renew the Delta Works. A main goal of the Delta project was to reduce the risk of flooding in South Holland and Zeeland to once per 10, years compared to 1 per years for the rest of the country. The Delta project is considered by the American Society of Civil Engineers as one of the seven wonders of the modern world. It is anticipated that global warming in the 21st century will result in a rise in sea level. The Netherlands is actively preparing for a sea level rise. A politically neutral Delta Commission has formulated an action plan to cope with a sea level rise of 1. Climate change will not only threaten the Netherlands from the sea side, but could also alter rainfall patterns and river run-off. To protect the country from river flooding, another program is already being executed. The Room for the River plan grants more flow space to rivers, protects the major populated areas and allows for periodic flooding of indefensible lands. The few residents who lived in these so-called "overflow areas" have been moved to higher ground, with some of that ground having been raised above anticipated flood levels. The predominant wind direction in the European Netherlands is southwest, which causes a mild maritime climate , with moderately warm summers and cool winters, and typically high humidity. This is especially true close to the Dutch coastline, where the difference in temperature between summer and winter, as well as between day and night is noticeably smaller than it is in the southeast of the country. On average, snow can occur from November to April, but sometimes occurs in May or October too. Precipitation throughout the year is distributed relatively equally each month. Summer and autumn months tend to gather a little more precipitation than the other months, mainly because of the intensity of the rainfall rather than the frequency of rain days this is especially the case in summer, when lightning is also much more frequent. The number of sunshine hours is affected by the fact that because of the geographical latitude, the length of the days varies between barely eight hours in December and nearly 17 hours in June. The Netherlands has 20 national parks and hundreds of other nature reserves, that include lakes , heathland , woods , dunes and other habitats. Most of these are owned by Staatsbosbeheer , the national department for forestry and nature conservation and Natuurmonumenten literally 'Natures monuments' , a private organisation that buys, protects and manages nature reserves. It consists primarily of the salt waters of the Oosterschelde, but also includes mud flats, meadows, and shoals. Because of the large variety of sea life, including unique regional species, the park is popular with Scuba divers. Other activities include sailing, fishing, cycling, and bird watching. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature , the European territory of the Netherlands belongs to the ecoregion of Atlantic mixed forests. In , the last old original natural woods were cut down, and most woods today are planted monocultures of trees like Scots pine and trees that are not native to the Netherlands. Virgin Islands. The islands of the Caribbean Netherlands enjoy a tropical climate with warm weather all year round. The Leeward Antilles are warmer and drier than the Windward islands. In summer, the Windward Islands can be subject to hurricanes. The Netherlands has been a constitutional monarchy since , and due to the efforts of Johan Rudolph Thorbecke , [97] became a parliamentary democracy since The Netherlands is described as a consociational state. Dutch politics and governance are characterised by an effort to achieve broad consensus on important issues, within both the political community and society as a whole. In , The Economist ranked the Netherlands as the 11th most democratic country in the world. The monarch is the head of state , at present King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands. Constitutionally, the position is equipped with limited powers. By law, the King has the right to be periodically briefed and consulted on government affairs. Depending on the personalities and relationships of the King and the ministers, the monarch might have influence beyond the power granted by the Constitution of the Netherlands. The executive power is formed by the Council of Ministers , the deliberative organ of the Dutch cabinet. One to three ministers are ministers without portfolio. The head of government is the Prime Minister of the Netherlands , who often is the leader of the largest party of the coalition. The Prime Minister is a primus inter pares , with no explicit powers beyond those of the other ministers. Mark Rutte has been Prime Minister since October ; the Prime Minister had been the leader of the largest party continuously since The cabinet is responsible to the bicameral parliament , the States General , which also has legislative powers. The members of the House of Representatives , the lower house , are elected in direct elections on the basis of party-list proportional representation. These are held every four years, or sooner in case the cabinet falls for example: The States-Provincial are directly elected every four years as well. The members of the provincial assemblies elect the 75 members of the Senate , the upper house , which has the power to reject laws, but not propose or amend them. Both houses send members to the Benelux Parliament , a consultative council. Both trade unions and employers organisations are consulted beforehand in policymaking in the financial, economic and social areas. They meet regularly with the government in the Social-Economic Council. This body advises government and its advice cannot be put aside easily. The Netherlands has a long tradition of social tolerance. In the late 19th century this Dutch tradition of religious tolerance transformed into a system of pillarisation , in which religious groups coexisted separately and only interacted at the level of government. This tradition of tolerance influences Dutch criminal justice policies on recreational drugs , prostitution , LGBT rights , euthanasia , and abortion , which are among the most liberal in the world. Because of the multi-party system , no single party has held a majority in parliament since the 19th century, as a result, coalition cabinets had to be formed. Since suffrage became universal in , the Dutch political system has been dominated by three families of political parties: These parties co-operated in coalition cabinets in which the Christian Democrats had always been a partner: In the s, the party system became more volatile: In the election , the CDA lost its dominant position. In the elections , this cabinet lost its majority, because of an increased support for the CDA and the rise of the right LPF , a new political party, around Pim Fortuyn , who was assassinated a week before the elections. The cabinet initiated an ambitious programme of reforming the welfare state , the healthcare system , and immigration policy. In these elections, the CDA remained the largest party and the Socialist Party made the largest gains. The big winner of the elections was Geert Wilders , whose right wing PVV , [] [] the ideological successor to the LPF , more than doubled its number of seats. This unprecedented minority government was supported by PVV, but proved ultimately to be unstable, [] when on 21 April , Wilders, leader of PVV, unexpectedly 'torpedoed seven weeks of austerity talks' on new austerity measures, paving the way for early elections. On 5 November they formed the second Rutte cabinet. The Netherlands is divided into twelve provinces, each under a King's Commissioner Commissaris van de Koning , except for Limburg province where the position is named Governor Gouverneur but has the same tasks. All provinces are divided into municipalities gemeenten , of which there are The country is also subdivided into 24 water districts, governed by a water board waterschap or hoogheemraadschap , each having authority in matters concerning water management. The Dutch water boards are among the oldest democratic entities in the world still in existence. Direct elections of the water boards take place every 4 years. The administrative structure on the 3 BES islands, collectively known as the Caribbean Netherlands , is different. These islands have the status of openbare lichamen public bodies , rather than municipalities, and as administrative units are generally referred to as special municipalities. They are not part of a province. The Netherlands has several Belgian exclaves [] and within those even several enclaves which are still part of the province of North Brabant. Because the Netherlands and Belgium are both in the Schengen Area , citizens of respective countries can travel through these enclaves. The history of Dutch foreign policy has been characterised by its neutrality. The Dutch economy is very open and relies strongly on international trade. The foreign policy of the Netherlands is based on four basic commitments: One of the more controversial international issues surrounding the Netherlands is its liberal policy towards soft drugs. During and after the Dutch Golden Age , the Dutch people built up a commercial and colonial empire. The most important colonies were present-day Suriname and Indonesia. Indonesia became independent after the Indonesian National Revolution in the s following a war of independence, international pressure and several United Nations Security Council resolutions. Suriname became independent in The historical ties inherited from its colonial past still influence the foreign relations of the Netherlands. In addition, many people from these countries are living permanently in the Netherlands. The Netherlands has one of the oldest standing armies in Europe; it was first established as such by Maurice of Nassau in the late s. The Dutch army was used throughout the Dutch Empire. After the defeat of Napoleon, the Dutch army was transformed into a conscription army. The army was unsuccessfully deployed during the Belgian Revolution in After , it was deployed mainly in the Dutch colonies, as the Netherlands remained neutral in European wars including the First World War , until the Netherlands was invaded in World War II and defeated by the Wehrmacht in May In conscription was suspended, and the Dutch army was once again transformed into a professional army. Since the s the Dutch army has been involved in the Bosnian War and the Kosovo War , it held a province in Iraq after the defeat of Saddam Hussein , and it was engaged in Afghanistan. The military is composed of four branches, all of which carry the prefix Koninklijke Royal:. The submarine service is open to women as of 1 January The Korps Commandotroepen , the Special Operations Force of the Netherlands Army, is open to women, but because of the extremely high physical demands for initial training, it is almost impossible for a woman to become a commando. The Netherlands has a developed economy and has been playing a special role in the European economy for many centuries. Since the 16th century, shipping, fishing, agriculture, trade, and banking have been leading sectors of the Dutch economy. The Netherlands has a high level of economic freedom. Angelica Teixeira - YouTube. Anna McManamey - YouTube. Annaleise Varga annaleisevarga - Instagram. Krafttraining Barbara Lust - YouTube. Becca Swanson on Myspace - bodybuilder, wrestler. Fisicoculturistas femeninas de Argentina. Brooklyn Hillenbrand - YouTube. Brooklyn Hillenbrand brooklynhillfit - Instagram. Camille Wagner - YouTube. Christy Resendes - YouTube. Vagrant Gypsy Life - to the gulls way and the whales way. Dallas Malloy - bodybuilder, pioneer in women's boxing. Dana Shemesh Ifbb Pro - Instagram. Ian Schofield - Instagram with lover Dani Reardon. Daniel Isaksson - YouTube. Deidre Pagnanelli deidre. Dolly Muscle E - YouTube. Elinor Medhammar - Min fortsatta resa mot scenen. 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Ashton also found documents showing Hagerty was granted a full pardon and returned to England in and says there is no record of her ever returning to Australia. She says this documentary evidence directly contradicts the depositions given by the captain of the Venus which names Badger and Hagerty as mutineers but says it is possible there was a case of mistaken identity. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Charlotte Badger. Bromsgrove , England. Oxford University Press. Retrieved Florida is the home of spring training for many baseball teams, hosts the Daytona , and boasts the three-time NBA champion Miami Heat. In , there were 98, obituaries reported in the state of Florida on Legacy. You can browse through the full list of Florida obituaries to find life stories that may be of interest to you. View All Funeral Homes in Florida..

Lamberts, eds. History of the Low Countries Jonathan Israel. The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall — J.

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Kossmann-Putto and E. The Low Countries: History of the Northern and Southern Netherlands Holland Compared 2nd edition — 95 page booklet Catherine holland land of venus Holland's commercial website, with facts and figures about the Netherlands, comparing the country's economic indicators with those of other countries.

Netherlands at Wikipedia's sister projects. Part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

African Sxxxx Watch Amateur teen barely legal girl gifs Video Xxx Albino. Updated Daily. Search Obituaries from more than 1, Newspapers worldwide. The state of Florida is a peninsula surrounded by water which features the longest coastline in the lower 48 states. Florida is also the most hurricane-prone state in the country. The Netherlands was, historically, the third country in the world to have representative government , and it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance , having legalised abortion , prostitution and human euthanasia , along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in , allowed women's suffrage in , and became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in Its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom , [20] economic freedom , [21] human development , and quality of life , as well as happiness. The Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and widely varying names in different languages. There is diversity even within languages. This holds also for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, Holland, home to the capital city of Amsterdam ; government headquarters at The Hague ; and Europe's largest port Rotterdam. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, however, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland. The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland , two of the nation's twelve provinces, formerly a single province, and earlier still, the County of Holland , a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders , Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region. Nonetheless, Holland is widely used in reference to the Netherlands national football team. The region called the Low Countries comprising Belgium , the Netherlands and Luxembourg and the Country of the Netherlands, have the same toponymy. They are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper , Boven , Oben , Superior or Haut. The geographical location of the upper region, however, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior nowadays part of Belgium and the Netherlands and upstream Germania Superior nowadays part of Germany. The designation 'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine , that covered much of the Low Countries. Burgundy in present-day east-central France. This was translated as Neder-landen in contemporary Dutch official documents. The area known as Oberland High country was in this deictic context considered to begin approximately at the nearby higher located Cologne. From the mid-sixteenth century on, the "Low Countries" and the "Netherlands" lost their original deictic meaning. They were probably the most commonly used names, besides Flanders , another pars pro toto for the Low Countries, especially in Romance language speaking Europe. The Low Countries today is a designation that includes the countries the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg, although in most Romance languages , the term "Low Countries" is used as the name for the Netherlands specifically. It is used synonymous with the more neutral and geopolitical term Benelux. The prehistory of the area that is now the Netherlands was largely shaped by the sea and the rivers that constantly shifted the low-lying geography. The oldest human Neanderthal traces were found in higher soils, near Maastricht , from what is believed to be about , years ago. From Mesolithic Maglemosian-like tribes c. Indigenous late Mesolithic hunter-gatherers from the Swifterbant culture c. There was a quick and smooth transition from the Funnelbeaker farming culture to the pan-European Corded Ware pastoralist culture c. Although in the southwest, the Seine-Oise-Marne culture related Vlaardingen culture c. Of the subsequent Bell Beaker culture — BC several regions of origin have been postulated, notably the Iberian peninsula, the Netherlands and Central Europe. The many finds in Drenthe of rare bronze objects, suggest that it was even a trading centre in the Bronze Age — BC. The initial phase of the Elp culture was characterised by tumuli — BC that were strongly tied to contemporary tumuli in northern Germany and Scandinavia, and were apparently related to the Tumulus culture in central Europe. The subsequent phase was that of cremating the dead and placing their ashes in urns which were then buried in fields, following the customs of the Urnfield culture — BC. The southern region became dominated by the related Hilversum culture — BC , which apparently inherited cultural ties with Britain of the previous Barbed-Wire Beaker culture. Iron ore brought a measure of prosperity, and was available throughout the country, including bog iron. Smiths travelled from settlement to settlement with bronze and iron, fabricating tools on demand. The King's grave of Oss BC was found in a burial mound, the largest of its kind in western Europe and containing an iron sword with an inlay of gold and coral. The deteriorating climate in Scandinavia around BC, that further deteriorated around BC, might have triggered migration of Germanic tribes from the North. By the time this migration was complete, around BC, a few general cultural and linguistic groups had emerged. They would later develop into the Frisii and the early Saxons. This group consisted of tribes that would eventually develop into the Salian Franks. Some scholars have speculated that even a third ethnic identity and language, neither Germanic nor Celtic, survived in the Netherlands until the Roman period, the Iron Age Nordwestblock culture, [42] [43] that eventually was being absorbed by the Celts to the south and the Germanic peoples from the east. The first author to describe the coast of Holland and Flanders was the Greek geographer Pytheas , who noted in c. The Rhine became fixed as Rome's northern frontier around 12 AD. Notable towns would arise along the Limes Germanicus: Nijmegen and Voorburg. The area to the north of the Rhine, inhabited by the Frisii, remained outside Roman rule but not its presence and control , while the Germanic border tribes of the Batavi and Cananefates served in the Roman cavalry. The Batavi later merged with other tribes into the confederation of the Salian Franks, whose identity emerged at the first half of the third century. They were forced by the confederation of the Saxons from the east to move over the Rhine into Roman territory in the fourth century. Roman forces pacified the region, but did not expel the Franks, who continued to be feared at least until the time of Julian the Apostate , when Salian Franks were allowed to settle as foederati in Toxandria. After Roman government in the area collapsed, the Franks expanded their territories in numerous kingdoms. By the s, Clovis I had conquered and united all these territories in the southern Netherlands in one Frankish kingdom , and from there continued his conquests into Gaul. During this expansion, Franks migrating to the south eventually adopted the Vulgar Latin of the local population. To the north of the Franks, climatic conditions on the coast improved, and during the Migration Period the abandoned land was resettled again, mostly by Saxons , but also by the closely related Angles , Jutes and ancient Frisii. By the seventh century a Frisian Kingdom — under King Aldegisel and King Redbad emerged with Utrecht as its centre of power, [51] [52] while Dorestad was a flourishing trading place. In , at the Battle of the Boarn , the Frisians were defeated after a series of wars. He established the Archdiocese of Utrecht and became bishop of the Frisians. However, his successor Boniface was murdered by the Frisians in Dokkum , in However, as of , it was divided into three parts— East , Middle , and West Francia. Most of present-day Netherlands became part of Middle Francia , which was a weak kingdom and subject of numerous partitions and annexation attempts by its stronger neighbours. It comprised territories from Frisia in the north to the Kingdom of Italy in the south. After he died in , Lotharingia was partitioned, into Upper and Lower Lotharingia , the latter part comprising the Low Countries that technically became part of East Francia in , although it was effectively under the control of Vikings, who raided the largely defenceless Frisian and Frankish towns lying on the Frisian coast and along the rivers. The Viking raids made the sway of French and German lords in the area weak. Resistance to the Vikings, if any, came from local nobles, who gained in stature as a result, and that laid the basis for the disintegration of Lower Lotharingia into semi-independent states. One of these local nobles was Gerolf of Holland , who assumed lordship in Frisia after he helped to assassinate Godfrid, and Viking rule came to an end. The Holy Roman Empire the successor state of East Francia and then Lotharingia ruled much of the Low Countries in the 10th and 11th century, but was not able to maintain political unity. Powerful local nobles turned their cities, counties and duchies into private kingdoms, that felt little sense of obligation to the emperor. Holland , Hainaut , Flanders , Gelre , Brabant , and Utrecht were in a state of almost continual war or paradoxically formed personal unions. The language and culture of most of the people who lived in the County of Holland were originally Frisian. The rest of Frisia in the north now Friesland and Groningen continued to maintain its independence and had its own institutions collectively called the " Frisian freedom " and resented the imposition of the feudal system. Around AD, due to several agricultural developments, the economy started to develop at a fast pace, and the higher productivity allowed workers to farm more land or to become tradesmen. Towns grew around monasteries and castles , and a mercantile middle class began to develop in these urban areas, especially in Flanders and later also Brabant. Wealthy cities started to buy certain privileges for themselves from the sovereign. In practice, this meant that Brugge and Antwerp became quasi-independent republics in their own right and would later develop into some of the most important cities and ports in Europe. Around AD, farmers from Flanders and Utrecht began draining and cultivating uninhabited swampy land in the western Netherlands, and made the emergence of the County of Holland as centre of power possible. Hoekse en Kabeljauwse twisten between and The Cod faction consisted of the more progressive cities, while the Hook faction consisted of the conservative noblemen. Most of the Imperial and French fiefs in what is now the Netherlands and Belgium were united in a personal union by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy in Before the Burgundian union, the Dutch identified themselves by the town they lived in or their local duchy or county. The Burgundian period is when the road to nationhood began. The new rulers defended Dutch trading interests, which then developed rapidly. The fleets of the County of Holland defeated the fleets of the Hanseatic League several times. Amsterdam grew and in the 15th century became the primary trading port in Europe for grain from the Baltic region. Amsterdam distributed grain to the major cities of Belgium, Northern France and England. This trade was vital, because Holland could no longer produce enough grain to feed itself. Land drainage had caused the peat of the former wetlands to reduce to a level that was too low for drainage to be maintained. Under Habsburg Charles V , ruler of the Holy Roman Empire and King of Spain , all fiefs in the current Netherlands region were united into the Seventeen Provinces , which also included most of present-day Belgium, Luxembourg, and some adjacent land in what is now France and Germany. The level of ferocity exhibited by both sides can be gleaned from a Dutch chronicler's report: On more than one occasion men were seen hanging their own brothers, who had been taken prisoners in the enemy's ranks A Spaniard had ceased to be human in their eyes. On one occasion, a surgeon at Veer cut the heart from a Spanish prisoner, nailed it on a vessel's prow, and invited the townsmen to come and fasten their teeth in it, which many did with savage satisfaction. The Duke of Alba ruthlessly attempted to suppress the Protestant movement in the Netherlands. Severed heads and decapitated corpses were displayed along streets and roads to terrorize the population into submission. Alba boasted of having executed 18,, [57] but this figure does not include those who perished by war and famine. The first great siege was Alba's effort to capture Haarlem and thereby cut Holland in half. It dragged on from December to the next summer, when Haarlemers finally surrendered on 13 July upon promise that the city would be spared from being sacked. It was a stipulation Don Fadrique was unable to honor, when his soldiers mutinied, angered over pay owed and the miserable conditions they endured during the long, cold months of the campaign. The citizens resisted, but were overcome; seven thousand of them were mowed down; a thousand buildings were torched; men, women, and children were slaughtered in a delirium of blood by soldiers crying, "Santiago! A sangre, a carne, a fuego, a sacco! To blood, to the flesh, to fire, to sack! Following the sack of Antwerp , delegates from Catholic Brabant, Protestant Holland and Zeeland agreed, at Ghent, to join Utrecht and William the Silent in driving out all Spanish troops and forming a new government for the Netherlands. Don Juan of Austria , the new Spanish governor, was forced to concede initially, but within months returned to active hostilities. As the fighting restarted, the Dutch began to look for help from the Queen of England, but she initially stood by her commitments to the Spanish in the Treaty of Bristol of The result was that when the next large-scale battle did occur at Gembloux in , the Spanish forces easily won the day, killing at least 10, rebels, with the Spanish suffering few losses. Opposing them, the northern half of the Seventeen Provinces forged the Union of Utrecht also of in which they committed to support each other in their defence against the Spanish army. Spanish troops sacked Maastricht in , killing over 10, civilians and thereby ensuring the rebellion continued. The Protestant Queen Elizabeth I of England sympathised with the Dutch struggle against the Spanish, and sent an army of 7, soldiers to aid the Dutch in their war with the Catholic Spanish. Parts of the southern provinces became de facto colonies of the new republican-mercantile empire. After declaring their independence, the provinces of Holland , Zeeland , Groningen , Friesland , Utrecht , Overijssel , and Gelderland formed a confederation. All these duchies, lordships and counties were autonomous and had their own government, the States-Provincial. The States General , the confederal government, were seated in The Hague and consisted of representatives from each of the seven provinces. The sparsely populated region of Drenthe was part of the republic too, although it was not considered one of the provinces. Their population was mainly Roman Catholic, and these areas did not have a governmental structure of their own, and were used as a buffer zone between the Republic and the Spanish-controlled Southern Netherlands. In the Dutch Golden Age , spanning much of the 17th century, the Dutch Empire grew to become one of the major seafaring and economic powers, alongside Portugal, Spain, France and England. Science, military, and art especially painting were among the most acclaimed in the world. By , the Dutch owned 16, merchant ships. The Dutch settlement in North America began with the founding of New Amsterdam on the southern part of Manhattan in Dutch colonies in South America were established along the many rivers in the fertile Guyana plains, among them Colony of Surinam now Suriname. Many economic historians regard the Netherlands as the first thoroughly capitalist country in the world. In early modern Europe it had the wealthiest trading city Amsterdam and the first full-time stock exchange. The inventiveness of the traders led to insurance and retirement funds as well as phenomena such as the boom-bust cycle , the world's first asset-inflation bubble , the tulip mania of —, and the world's first bear raider , Isaac le Maire , who forced prices down by dumping stock and then buying it back at a discount. At sea it could successfully prevent the English and French navy entering the western shores. On land, however, it was almost taken over internally by the advancing French and German armies coming from the east. It managed to turn the tide by inundating parts of Holland , but could never recover to its former glory again and went into a state of general decline in the 18th century, with economic competition from England and long-standing rivalries between the two main factions in Dutch society, the republican Staatsgezinden and the supporters of the stadtholder the Prinsgezinden , as main political factions. With the armed support of revolutionary France , Dutch republicans proclaimed the Batavian Republic , modelled after the French Republic and rendering the Netherlands a unitary state on 19 January The stadtholder William V of Orange had fled to England. But from to , the Kingdom of Holland was set up by Napoleon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom governed by his brother Louis Bonaparte to control the Netherlands more effectively. However, King Louis Bonaparte tried to serve Dutch interests instead of his brother's, and he was forced to abdicate on 1 July The Emperor sent in an army and the Netherlands became part of the French Empire until the autumn of , when Napoleon was defeated in the Battle of Leipzig. William Frederick , son of the last stadtholder, returned to the Netherlands in and proclaimed himself Sovereign Prince of the Netherlands. Two years later, the Congress of Vienna added the southern Netherlands to the north to create a strong country on the northern border of France. William Frederick raised this United Netherlands to the status of a kingdom and proclaimed himself as King William I in In addition, William became hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg in exchange for his German possessions. However, the Southern Netherlands had been culturally separate from the north since , and rebelled. The south gained independence in as Belgium recognised by the Northern Netherlands in as the Kingdom of the Netherlands was created by decree , while the personal union between Luxembourg and the Netherlands was severed in , when William III died with no surviving male heirs. Ascendancy laws prevented his daughter Queen Wilhelmina from becoming the next Grand Duchess. The policy brought the Dutch enormous wealth and made the colony self-sufficient. The Netherlands abolished slavery in , [70] as the last country in Europe to do so. The Dutch were also one of the last European countries to industrialise , in the second half of the 19th century. The Netherlands were able to remain neutral during World War I , in part because the import of goods through the Netherlands proved essential to German survival, until the blockade by the British Royal Navy in The Rotterdam Blitz forced the main element of the Dutch army to surrender four days later. During the occupation, over , Dutch Jews [74] were rounded up and transported to Nazi extermination camps ; only a few of them survived. Dutch workers were conscripted for forced labour in Germany, civilians who resisted were killed in reprisal for attacks on German soldiers, and the countryside was plundered for food. Although there were thousands of Dutch who risked their lives by hiding Jews from the Germans, over 20, Dutch fascists joined the Waffen SS , [75] fighting on the Eastern Front. On 8 December , the Dutch government-in-exile in London declared war on Japan, [77] but could not prevent the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies Indonesia. In , the Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands reformed the political structure of the Netherlands, which was a result of international pressure to carry out decolonisation. Indonesia had declared its independence in August recognised in , and thus was never part of the reformed Kingdom. Suriname followed in After the war the Netherlands left behind an era of neutrality and gained closer ties with neighboring states. Government-encouraged emigration efforts to reduce population density prompted some , Dutch people to leave the country after the war. Youths, and students in particular, rejected traditional mores and pushed for change in matters such as women's rights , sexuality , disarmament and environmental issues. In , the euro was introduced as fiat money and in , the Netherlands Antilles was dissolved. Referendums were held on each island to determine their future status. This led to the incorporation of these three islands into the country of the Netherlands as special municipalities upon the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles. The special municipalities are collectively known as the Caribbean Netherlands. Most of the areas below sea level are man-made, caused by peat extraction or achieved through land reclamation. Since the late 16th century, large polder areas are preserved through elaborate drainage systems that include dikes , canals and pumping stations. Much of the country was originally formed by the estuaries of three large European rivers: The south-western part of the Netherlands is to this day a river delta of these three rivers, the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta. The European Netherlands is divided into north and south parts by the Rhine, the Waal , its main tributary branch, and the Meuse. In the past these rivers functioned as a natural barrier between fiefdoms and hence historically created a cultural divide, as is evident in some phonetic traits that are recognisable on either side of what the Dutch call their "Great Rivers" de Grote Rivieren. Just like the previous, this river forms a linguistic divide: Over the centuries, the Dutch coastline has changed considerably as a result of natural disasters and human intervention. Most notable in terms of land loss was the storm of [ citation needed ] , which created the archipelago of Zeeland in the south-west. On 14 December , St. Lucia's flood affected the Netherlands and Germany, killing more than 50, people in one of the most destructive floods in recorded history. The huge North Sea flood of early February caused the collapse of several dikes in the south-west of the Netherlands; more than 1, people drowned in the flood. The Dutch government subsequently instituted a large-scale programme, the " Delta Works ", to protect the country against future flooding, which was completed over a period of more than thirty years. The impact of disasters was, to an extent, increased through human activity. Relatively high-lying swampland was drained to be used as farmland. The drainage caused the fertile peat to contract and ground levels to drop, upon which groundwater levels were lowered to compensate for the drop in ground level, causing the underlying peat to contract further. Additionally, until the 19th century peat was mined, dried, and used for fuel, further exacerbating the problem. Centuries of extensive and poorly controlled peat extraction lowered an already low land surface by several metres. Even in flooded areas, peat extraction continued through turf dredging. To guard against floods, a series of defences against the water were contrived. In the first millennium AD , villages and farmhouses were built on man-made hills called terps. Later, these terps were connected by dikes. In the 12th century, local government agencies called " waterschappen " "water boards" or " hoogheemraadschappen " "high home councils" started to appear, whose job it was to maintain the water level and to protect a region from floods; these agencies continue to exist. As the ground level dropped, the dikes by necessity grew and merged into an integrated system. By the 13th century windmills had come into use to pump water out of areas below sea level. The windmills were later used to drain lakes, creating the famous polders. The Netherlands is one of the countries that may suffer most from climate change. Not only is the rising sea a problem, but erratic weather patterns may cause the rivers to overflow. After the disaster , the Delta Works was constructed, which is a comprehensive set of civil works throughout the Dutch coast. The project started in and was largely completed in with the completion of the Maeslantkering. Since then, new projects have been periodically started to renovate and renew the Delta Works. A main goal of the Delta project was to reduce the risk of flooding in South Holland and Zeeland to once per 10, years compared to 1 per years for the rest of the country. The Delta project is considered by the American Society of Civil Engineers as one of the seven wonders of the modern world. It is anticipated that global warming in the 21st century will result in a rise in sea level. The Netherlands is actively preparing for a sea level rise. A politically neutral Delta Commission has formulated an action plan to cope with a sea level rise of 1. Climate change will not only threaten the Netherlands from the sea side, but could also alter rainfall patterns and river run-off. To protect the country from river flooding, another program is already being executed. The Room for the River plan grants more flow space to rivers, protects the major populated areas and allows for periodic flooding of indefensible lands. The few residents who lived in these so-called "overflow areas" have been moved to higher ground, with some of that ground having been raised above anticipated flood levels. The predominant wind direction in the European Netherlands is southwest, which causes a mild maritime climate , with moderately warm summers and cool winters, and typically high humidity. This is especially true close to the Dutch coastline, where the difference in temperature between summer and winter, as well as between day and night is noticeably smaller than it is in the southeast of the country. On average, snow can occur from November to April, but sometimes occurs in May or October too. Precipitation throughout the year is distributed relatively equally each month. Summer and autumn months tend to gather a little more precipitation than the other months, mainly because of the intensity of the rainfall rather than the frequency of rain days this is especially the case in summer, when lightning is also much more frequent. The number of sunshine hours is affected by the fact that because of the geographical latitude, the length of the days varies between barely eight hours in December and nearly 17 hours in June. The Netherlands has 20 national parks and hundreds of other nature reserves, that include lakes , heathland , woods , dunes and other habitats. Most of these are owned by Staatsbosbeheer , the national department for forestry and nature conservation and Natuurmonumenten literally 'Natures monuments' , a private organisation that buys, protects and manages nature reserves. It consists primarily of the salt waters of the Oosterschelde, but also includes mud flats, meadows, and shoals. Because of the large variety of sea life, including unique regional species, the park is popular with Scuba divers. Other activities include sailing, fishing, cycling, and bird watching. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature , the European territory of the Netherlands belongs to the ecoregion of Atlantic mixed forests. In , the last old original natural woods were cut down, and most woods today are planted monocultures of trees like Scots pine and trees that are not native to the Netherlands. Virgin Islands. The islands of the Caribbean Netherlands enjoy a tropical climate with warm weather all year round. The Leeward Antilles are warmer and drier than the Windward islands. In summer, the Windward Islands can be subject to hurricanes. The Netherlands has been a constitutional monarchy since , and due to the efforts of Johan Rudolph Thorbecke , [97] became a parliamentary democracy since The Netherlands is described as a consociational state. Dutch politics and governance are characterised by an effort to achieve broad consensus on important issues, within both the political community and society as a whole. In , The Economist ranked the Netherlands as the 11th most democratic country in the world. The monarch is the head of state , at present King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands. Constitutionally, the position is equipped with limited powers. By law, the King has the right to be periodically briefed and consulted on government affairs. Depending on the personalities and relationships of the King and the ministers, the monarch might have influence beyond the power granted by the Constitution of the Netherlands. The executive power is formed by the Council of Ministers , the deliberative organ of the Dutch cabinet. One to three ministers are ministers without portfolio. The head of government is the Prime Minister of the Netherlands , who often is the leader of the largest party of the coalition. The Prime Minister is a primus inter pares , with no explicit powers beyond those of the other ministers. Mark Rutte has been Prime Minister since October ; the Prime Minister had been the leader of the largest party continuously since The cabinet is responsible to the bicameral parliament , the States General , which also has legislative powers. The members of the House of Representatives , the lower house , are elected in direct elections on the basis of party-list proportional representation. These are held every four years, or sooner in case the cabinet falls for example: The States-Provincial are directly elected every four years as well. The members of the provincial assemblies elect the 75 members of the Senate , the upper house , which has the power to reject laws, but not propose or amend them. Both houses send members to the Benelux Parliament , a consultative council. Both trade unions and employers organisations are consulted beforehand in policymaking in the financial, economic and social areas. They meet regularly with the government in the Social-Economic Council. This body advises government and its advice cannot be put aside easily. The Netherlands has a long tradition of social tolerance. In the late 19th century this Dutch tradition of religious tolerance transformed into a system of pillarisation , in which religious groups coexisted separately and only interacted at the level of government. This tradition of tolerance influences Dutch criminal justice policies on recreational drugs , prostitution , LGBT rights , euthanasia , and abortion , which are among the most liberal in the world. Because of the multi-party system , no single party has held a majority in parliament since the 19th century, as a result, coalition cabinets had to be formed. Since suffrage became universal in , the Dutch political system has been dominated by three families of political parties: These parties co-operated in coalition cabinets in which the Christian Democrats had always been a partner: In the s, the party system became more volatile: In the election , the CDA lost its dominant position. In the elections , this cabinet lost its majority, because of an increased support for the CDA and the rise of the right LPF , a new political party, around Pim Fortuyn , who was assassinated a week before the elections. The cabinet initiated an ambitious programme of reforming the welfare state , the healthcare system , and immigration policy. In these elections, the CDA remained the largest party and the Socialist Party made the largest gains. The big winner of the elections was Geert Wilders , whose right wing PVV , [] [] the ideological successor to the LPF , more than doubled its number of seats. This unprecedented minority government was supported by PVV, but proved ultimately to be unstable, [] when on 21 April , Wilders, leader of PVV, unexpectedly 'torpedoed seven weeks of austerity talks' on new austerity measures, paving the way for early elections. On 5 November they formed the second Rutte cabinet. Archived from the original on December 10, Radio New Zealand. Indra Publishing. The Sound of Confusion. Pirates Privateers Timeline of piracy Pirate films Women in piracy Fictional pirates Pirates in popular culture List of ships attacked by Somali pirates. Return to Treasure Island. Category Portal. Convicts in Australia. James Blackburn Francis Greenway. The Transports Our Country's Good Authority control LCCN: Vagrant Gypsy Life - to the gulls way and the whales way. Dallas Malloy - bodybuilder, pioneer in women's boxing. Dana Shemesh Ifbb Pro - Instagram. Ian Schofield - Instagram with lover Dani Reardon. Daniel Isaksson - YouTube. Deidre Pagnanelli deidre. 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Years in the Netherlands —present. Pre Links to related articles. Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe. States with limited recognition.

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The Netherlands Dutch:

Benelux countries. Dutch Language Union. Belgium Flanders Netherlands Suriname.

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Indonesia South Catherine holland land of venus. Some stories suggest that the other mutineers all fled but were eventually caught and hanged, [4] while others suggest that they went pirating after Badger, Hagerty, Lancashire and Kelly left, despite not knowing how to navigate the ship.

Meanwhile, Lancashire and Kelly were also recaptured and Hagerty died of a fever.

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Historian Jennifer Ashton has uncovered evidence suggesting neither Badger nor Hagerty were present on the Venus when it was captured. Ashton says Charlotte Badger is listed in the New South Wales convict muster every year from her arrival in until aside from one census in Catherine holland land of venus year the Venus was captured. One possible explanation for her absence is that Visit web page was on the Venus but returned to Australia shortly afterwards but Ashton considers that scenario very unlikely.

Ashton also found documents showing Hagerty was granted a full pardon and returned to England in and says there is no record of her ever returning to Australia.

She says this documentary evidence directly contradicts the depositions given by the captain of the Venus which names Badger and Hagerty as mutineers but says it is possible there was a Catherine holland land of venus of mistaken identity. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Charlotte Badger. BromsgroveEngland. Oxford University Press. Anna McManamey - YouTube.

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Jewish nudes Watch Lesbian slave fetish Video Streqon Sex. The state of Florida is a peninsula surrounded by water which features the longest coastline in the lower 48 states. Florida is also the most hurricane-prone state in the country. This is probably the main reason that Florida has over 1, golf courses, more than any other state. Tourism is king in Florida and the industry employs more than a million people. Dutch colonies in South America were established along the many rivers in the fertile Guyana plains, among them Colony of Surinam now Suriname. Many economic historians regard the Netherlands as the first thoroughly capitalist country in the world. In early modern Europe it had the wealthiest trading city Amsterdam and the first full-time stock exchange. The inventiveness of the traders led to insurance and retirement funds as well as phenomena such as the boom-bust cycle , the world's first asset-inflation bubble , the tulip mania of —, and the world's first bear raider , Isaac le Maire , who forced prices down by dumping stock and then buying it back at a discount. At sea it could successfully prevent the English and French navy entering the western shores. On land, however, it was almost taken over internally by the advancing French and German armies coming from the east. It managed to turn the tide by inundating parts of Holland , but could never recover to its former glory again and went into a state of general decline in the 18th century, with economic competition from England and long-standing rivalries between the two main factions in Dutch society, the republican Staatsgezinden and the supporters of the stadtholder the Prinsgezinden , as main political factions. With the armed support of revolutionary France , Dutch republicans proclaimed the Batavian Republic , modelled after the French Republic and rendering the Netherlands a unitary state on 19 January The stadtholder William V of Orange had fled to England. But from to , the Kingdom of Holland was set up by Napoleon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom governed by his brother Louis Bonaparte to control the Netherlands more effectively. However, King Louis Bonaparte tried to serve Dutch interests instead of his brother's, and he was forced to abdicate on 1 July The Emperor sent in an army and the Netherlands became part of the French Empire until the autumn of , when Napoleon was defeated in the Battle of Leipzig. William Frederick , son of the last stadtholder, returned to the Netherlands in and proclaimed himself Sovereign Prince of the Netherlands. Two years later, the Congress of Vienna added the southern Netherlands to the north to create a strong country on the northern border of France. William Frederick raised this United Netherlands to the status of a kingdom and proclaimed himself as King William I in In addition, William became hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg in exchange for his German possessions. However, the Southern Netherlands had been culturally separate from the north since , and rebelled. The south gained independence in as Belgium recognised by the Northern Netherlands in as the Kingdom of the Netherlands was created by decree , while the personal union between Luxembourg and the Netherlands was severed in , when William III died with no surviving male heirs. Ascendancy laws prevented his daughter Queen Wilhelmina from becoming the next Grand Duchess. The policy brought the Dutch enormous wealth and made the colony self-sufficient. The Netherlands abolished slavery in , [70] as the last country in Europe to do so. The Dutch were also one of the last European countries to industrialise , in the second half of the 19th century. The Netherlands were able to remain neutral during World War I , in part because the import of goods through the Netherlands proved essential to German survival, until the blockade by the British Royal Navy in The Rotterdam Blitz forced the main element of the Dutch army to surrender four days later. During the occupation, over , Dutch Jews [74] were rounded up and transported to Nazi extermination camps ; only a few of them survived. Dutch workers were conscripted for forced labour in Germany, civilians who resisted were killed in reprisal for attacks on German soldiers, and the countryside was plundered for food. Although there were thousands of Dutch who risked their lives by hiding Jews from the Germans, over 20, Dutch fascists joined the Waffen SS , [75] fighting on the Eastern Front. On 8 December , the Dutch government-in-exile in London declared war on Japan, [77] but could not prevent the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies Indonesia. In , the Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands reformed the political structure of the Netherlands, which was a result of international pressure to carry out decolonisation. Indonesia had declared its independence in August recognised in , and thus was never part of the reformed Kingdom. Suriname followed in After the war the Netherlands left behind an era of neutrality and gained closer ties with neighboring states. Government-encouraged emigration efforts to reduce population density prompted some , Dutch people to leave the country after the war. Youths, and students in particular, rejected traditional mores and pushed for change in matters such as women's rights , sexuality , disarmament and environmental issues. In , the euro was introduced as fiat money and in , the Netherlands Antilles was dissolved. Referendums were held on each island to determine their future status. This led to the incorporation of these three islands into the country of the Netherlands as special municipalities upon the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles. The special municipalities are collectively known as the Caribbean Netherlands. Most of the areas below sea level are man-made, caused by peat extraction or achieved through land reclamation. Since the late 16th century, large polder areas are preserved through elaborate drainage systems that include dikes , canals and pumping stations. Much of the country was originally formed by the estuaries of three large European rivers: The south-western part of the Netherlands is to this day a river delta of these three rivers, the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta. The European Netherlands is divided into north and south parts by the Rhine, the Waal , its main tributary branch, and the Meuse. In the past these rivers functioned as a natural barrier between fiefdoms and hence historically created a cultural divide, as is evident in some phonetic traits that are recognisable on either side of what the Dutch call their "Great Rivers" de Grote Rivieren. Just like the previous, this river forms a linguistic divide: Over the centuries, the Dutch coastline has changed considerably as a result of natural disasters and human intervention. Most notable in terms of land loss was the storm of [ citation needed ] , which created the archipelago of Zeeland in the south-west. On 14 December , St. Lucia's flood affected the Netherlands and Germany, killing more than 50, people in one of the most destructive floods in recorded history. The huge North Sea flood of early February caused the collapse of several dikes in the south-west of the Netherlands; more than 1, people drowned in the flood. The Dutch government subsequently instituted a large-scale programme, the " Delta Works ", to protect the country against future flooding, which was completed over a period of more than thirty years. The impact of disasters was, to an extent, increased through human activity. Relatively high-lying swampland was drained to be used as farmland. The drainage caused the fertile peat to contract and ground levels to drop, upon which groundwater levels were lowered to compensate for the drop in ground level, causing the underlying peat to contract further. Additionally, until the 19th century peat was mined, dried, and used for fuel, further exacerbating the problem. Centuries of extensive and poorly controlled peat extraction lowered an already low land surface by several metres. Even in flooded areas, peat extraction continued through turf dredging. To guard against floods, a series of defences against the water were contrived. In the first millennium AD , villages and farmhouses were built on man-made hills called terps. Later, these terps were connected by dikes. In the 12th century, local government agencies called " waterschappen " "water boards" or " hoogheemraadschappen " "high home councils" started to appear, whose job it was to maintain the water level and to protect a region from floods; these agencies continue to exist. As the ground level dropped, the dikes by necessity grew and merged into an integrated system. By the 13th century windmills had come into use to pump water out of areas below sea level. The windmills were later used to drain lakes, creating the famous polders. The Netherlands is one of the countries that may suffer most from climate change. Not only is the rising sea a problem, but erratic weather patterns may cause the rivers to overflow. After the disaster , the Delta Works was constructed, which is a comprehensive set of civil works throughout the Dutch coast. The project started in and was largely completed in with the completion of the Maeslantkering. Since then, new projects have been periodically started to renovate and renew the Delta Works. A main goal of the Delta project was to reduce the risk of flooding in South Holland and Zeeland to once per 10, years compared to 1 per years for the rest of the country. The Delta project is considered by the American Society of Civil Engineers as one of the seven wonders of the modern world. It is anticipated that global warming in the 21st century will result in a rise in sea level. The Netherlands is actively preparing for a sea level rise. A politically neutral Delta Commission has formulated an action plan to cope with a sea level rise of 1. Climate change will not only threaten the Netherlands from the sea side, but could also alter rainfall patterns and river run-off. To protect the country from river flooding, another program is already being executed. The Room for the River plan grants more flow space to rivers, protects the major populated areas and allows for periodic flooding of indefensible lands. The few residents who lived in these so-called "overflow areas" have been moved to higher ground, with some of that ground having been raised above anticipated flood levels. The predominant wind direction in the European Netherlands is southwest, which causes a mild maritime climate , with moderately warm summers and cool winters, and typically high humidity. This is especially true close to the Dutch coastline, where the difference in temperature between summer and winter, as well as between day and night is noticeably smaller than it is in the southeast of the country. On average, snow can occur from November to April, but sometimes occurs in May or October too. Precipitation throughout the year is distributed relatively equally each month. Summer and autumn months tend to gather a little more precipitation than the other months, mainly because of the intensity of the rainfall rather than the frequency of rain days this is especially the case in summer, when lightning is also much more frequent. The number of sunshine hours is affected by the fact that because of the geographical latitude, the length of the days varies between barely eight hours in December and nearly 17 hours in June. The Netherlands has 20 national parks and hundreds of other nature reserves, that include lakes , heathland , woods , dunes and other habitats. Most of these are owned by Staatsbosbeheer , the national department for forestry and nature conservation and Natuurmonumenten literally 'Natures monuments' , a private organisation that buys, protects and manages nature reserves. It consists primarily of the salt waters of the Oosterschelde, but also includes mud flats, meadows, and shoals. Because of the large variety of sea life, including unique regional species, the park is popular with Scuba divers. Other activities include sailing, fishing, cycling, and bird watching. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature , the European territory of the Netherlands belongs to the ecoregion of Atlantic mixed forests. In , the last old original natural woods were cut down, and most woods today are planted monocultures of trees like Scots pine and trees that are not native to the Netherlands. Virgin Islands. The islands of the Caribbean Netherlands enjoy a tropical climate with warm weather all year round. The Leeward Antilles are warmer and drier than the Windward islands. In summer, the Windward Islands can be subject to hurricanes. The Netherlands has been a constitutional monarchy since , and due to the efforts of Johan Rudolph Thorbecke , [97] became a parliamentary democracy since The Netherlands is described as a consociational state. Dutch politics and governance are characterised by an effort to achieve broad consensus on important issues, within both the political community and society as a whole. In , The Economist ranked the Netherlands as the 11th most democratic country in the world. The monarch is the head of state , at present King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands. Constitutionally, the position is equipped with limited powers. By law, the King has the right to be periodically briefed and consulted on government affairs. Depending on the personalities and relationships of the King and the ministers, the monarch might have influence beyond the power granted by the Constitution of the Netherlands. The executive power is formed by the Council of Ministers , the deliberative organ of the Dutch cabinet. One to three ministers are ministers without portfolio. The head of government is the Prime Minister of the Netherlands , who often is the leader of the largest party of the coalition. The Prime Minister is a primus inter pares , with no explicit powers beyond those of the other ministers. Mark Rutte has been Prime Minister since October ; the Prime Minister had been the leader of the largest party continuously since The cabinet is responsible to the bicameral parliament , the States General , which also has legislative powers. The members of the House of Representatives , the lower house , are elected in direct elections on the basis of party-list proportional representation. These are held every four years, or sooner in case the cabinet falls for example: The States-Provincial are directly elected every four years as well. The members of the provincial assemblies elect the 75 members of the Senate , the upper house , which has the power to reject laws, but not propose or amend them. Both houses send members to the Benelux Parliament , a consultative council. Both trade unions and employers organisations are consulted beforehand in policymaking in the financial, economic and social areas. They meet regularly with the government in the Social-Economic Council. This body advises government and its advice cannot be put aside easily. The Netherlands has a long tradition of social tolerance. In the late 19th century this Dutch tradition of religious tolerance transformed into a system of pillarisation , in which religious groups coexisted separately and only interacted at the level of government. This tradition of tolerance influences Dutch criminal justice policies on recreational drugs , prostitution , LGBT rights , euthanasia , and abortion , which are among the most liberal in the world. Because of the multi-party system , no single party has held a majority in parliament since the 19th century, as a result, coalition cabinets had to be formed. Since suffrage became universal in , the Dutch political system has been dominated by three families of political parties: These parties co-operated in coalition cabinets in which the Christian Democrats had always been a partner: In the s, the party system became more volatile: In the election , the CDA lost its dominant position. In the elections , this cabinet lost its majority, because of an increased support for the CDA and the rise of the right LPF , a new political party, around Pim Fortuyn , who was assassinated a week before the elections. The cabinet initiated an ambitious programme of reforming the welfare state , the healthcare system , and immigration policy. In these elections, the CDA remained the largest party and the Socialist Party made the largest gains. The big winner of the elections was Geert Wilders , whose right wing PVV , [] [] the ideological successor to the LPF , more than doubled its number of seats. This unprecedented minority government was supported by PVV, but proved ultimately to be unstable, [] when on 21 April , Wilders, leader of PVV, unexpectedly 'torpedoed seven weeks of austerity talks' on new austerity measures, paving the way for early elections. On 5 November they formed the second Rutte cabinet. The Netherlands is divided into twelve provinces, each under a King's Commissioner Commissaris van de Koning , except for Limburg province where the position is named Governor Gouverneur but has the same tasks. All provinces are divided into municipalities gemeenten , of which there are The country is also subdivided into 24 water districts, governed by a water board waterschap or hoogheemraadschap , each having authority in matters concerning water management. The Dutch water boards are among the oldest democratic entities in the world still in existence. Direct elections of the water boards take place every 4 years. The administrative structure on the 3 BES islands, collectively known as the Caribbean Netherlands , is different. These islands have the status of openbare lichamen public bodies , rather than municipalities, and as administrative units are generally referred to as special municipalities. They are not part of a province. The Netherlands has several Belgian exclaves [] and within those even several enclaves which are still part of the province of North Brabant. Because the Netherlands and Belgium are both in the Schengen Area , citizens of respective countries can travel through these enclaves. The history of Dutch foreign policy has been characterised by its neutrality. The Dutch economy is very open and relies strongly on international trade. The foreign policy of the Netherlands is based on four basic commitments: One of the more controversial international issues surrounding the Netherlands is its liberal policy towards soft drugs. During and after the Dutch Golden Age , the Dutch people built up a commercial and colonial empire. The most important colonies were present-day Suriname and Indonesia. Indonesia became independent after the Indonesian National Revolution in the s following a war of independence, international pressure and several United Nations Security Council resolutions. Suriname became independent in The historical ties inherited from its colonial past still influence the foreign relations of the Netherlands. In addition, many people from these countries are living permanently in the Netherlands. The Netherlands has one of the oldest standing armies in Europe; it was first established as such by Maurice of Nassau in the late s. The Dutch army was used throughout the Dutch Empire. After the defeat of Napoleon, the Dutch army was transformed into a conscription army. The army was unsuccessfully deployed during the Belgian Revolution in After , it was deployed mainly in the Dutch colonies, as the Netherlands remained neutral in European wars including the First World War , until the Netherlands was invaded in World War II and defeated by the Wehrmacht in May In conscription was suspended, and the Dutch army was once again transformed into a professional army. Since the s the Dutch army has been involved in the Bosnian War and the Kosovo War , it held a province in Iraq after the defeat of Saddam Hussein , and it was engaged in Afghanistan. The military is composed of four branches, all of which carry the prefix Koninklijke Royal:. The submarine service is open to women as of 1 January The Korps Commandotroepen , the Special Operations Force of the Netherlands Army, is open to women, but because of the extremely high physical demands for initial training, it is almost impossible for a woman to become a commando. The Netherlands has a developed economy and has been playing a special role in the European economy for many centuries. Since the 16th century, shipping, fishing, agriculture, trade, and banking have been leading sectors of the Dutch economy. The Netherlands has a high level of economic freedom. The Netherlands is one of the top countries in the Global Enabling Trade Report 2nd in , and was ranked the fifth most competitive economy in the world by the Swiss International Institute for Management Development in Foodstuffs form the largest industrial sector. Other major industries include chemicals, metallurgy, machinery, electrical goods, trade, services and tourism. The Netherlands has the 17th-largest economy in the world , and ranks 10th in GDP nominal per capita. Growth slowed considerably from to with the global economic slowdown, but accelerated to 4. In May , inflation was at 2. In Q3 and Q4 , the Dutch economy contracted by 0. Amsterdam is the financial and business capital of the Netherlands. It is situated near Dam Square in the city's centre. As a founding member of the euro , the Netherlands replaced for accounting purposes its former currency, the "gulden" guilder , on 1 January , along with 15 other adopters of the euro. Actual euro coins and banknotes followed on 1 January One euro was equivalent to 2. In the Caribbean Netherlands , the United States dollar is used instead of the euro. The Dutch location gives it prime access to markets in the UK and Germany, with the Port of Rotterdam being the largest port in Europe. Other important parts of the economy are international trade Dutch colonialism started with co-operative private enterprises such as the Dutch East India Company , banking and transport. The Netherlands successfully addressed the issue of public finances and stagnating job growth long before its European partners. Amsterdam is the 5th-busiest tourist destination in Europe with more than 4. Also of economic importance is BrabantStad , a partnership between the municipalities of Breda , Eindhoven , Helmond , 's-Hertogenbosch and Tilburg and the province of North Brabant. BrabantStad is the fastest growing economic region in the Netherlands, with the Brabantse Stedenrij polycentric city region as one of the national top regions, behind the Randstad megalopolis Amsterdam , Rotterdam , The Hague and Utrecht. With a total of 1. Of all the money that goes to research and development in the Netherlands, one third is spent in Eindhoven. A quarter of the jobs in the region are in technology and ICT. Of all European patent applications in the field of physics and electronics about eight per cent is from North Brabant. This economic cooperation agreement between three cities in three countries has created one of the most innovative regions in the European Union measured in terms of money invested in technology and knowledge economy. The Netherlands continues to be one of the leading European nations for attracting foreign direct investment and is one of the five largest investors in the United States. The economy experienced a slowdown in , but in recovered to the fastest pace in six years on the back of increased exports and strong investment. The pace of job growth reached year highs in The Netherlands is the fourth-most competitive economy in the world, according to the World Economic Forum 's Global Competitiveness Report. Beginning in the s, the Netherlands discovered huge natural gas resources. The sale of natural gas generated enormous revenues for the Netherlands for decades, adding hundreds of billions of euros to the government's budget. Apart from coal and gas, the country has no mining resources. The last coal mine was closed in The Groningen gas field , one of the largest natural gas fields in the world, is situated near Slochteren. The cost of damage repairs, structural improvements to buildings, and compensation for home value decreases has been estimated at 6. Around 35, homes are said to be affected. Netherlands is faced with future challenges as the energy supply is forecasted to fall short of the demand by the year in the gas sector. Netherlands relies heavily on natural gas to provide energy. ON, Eneco and Delta that have significant influence over the energy policy. The Dutch agricultural sector is highly mechanised, and has a strong focus on international exports. The Netherlands has, at some time in recent history, supplied one quarter of all of the world's exported tomatoes, and trade of one-third of the world's exports of chilis , tomatoes and cucumbers goes through the country. The Netherlands also exports one-fifteenth of the world's apples. Aside from that, a significant portion of Dutch agricultural exports consists of fresh-cut plants, flowers, and flower bulbs, with the Netherlands exporting two-thirds of the world's total. Mobility on Dutch roads has grown continuously since the s and now exceeds billion km travelled per year, [] three quarters of which are done by car. Trains are frequent, with two trains per hour on lesser lines, [j] two to four trains per hour on average, and up to eight trains an hour on the busiest lines. Cycling is a ubiquitous mode of transport in the Netherlands. Almost as many kilometres are covered by bicycle as by train. There are large bicycle parking facilities, particularly in city centres and at train stations. The Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, with the rivers Meuse and Rhine providing excellent access to the hinterland upstream reaching to Basel , Switzerland, and into Germany and France. As of [update] , Rotterdam was the world's eighth largest container port handling The harbour functions as an important transit point for bulk materials and between the European continent and overseas. From Rotterdam goods are transported by ship, river barge, train or road. In , the Betuweroute , a new fast freight railway from Rotterdam to Germany, was completed. Schiphol Airport , just southwest of Amsterdam, is the main international airport in the Netherlands, and the third busiest airport in Europe in terms of passengers. In , the Royal Schiphol Group airports handled 70 million passengers. The rollout will be undertaken by Switzerland-based power and automation company ABB and Dutch startup Fastned, and will aim to provide at least one station within a kilometre radius 30 miles from every home in the Netherlands. The Netherlands had an estimated population of 17,, as of January It is the 63rd most populous country in the world. Between and , the country's population almost doubled from 5. From to , the population further increased, to The fertility rate in the Netherlands is 1. Life expectancy is high in the Netherlands: According to a estimate, the population was The Dutch are the tallest people in the world, [] with an average height of 1. According to Eurostat , in there were 1. Of these, 1. The Netherlands is the 24th most densely populated country in the world, with The Randstad is the country's largest conurbation located in the west of the country and contains the four largest cities: According to Dutch Central Statistics Bureau, in , 28 percent of Dutch population had a spendable income above 40, euros which does not include spendings on health care or education. The official language is Dutch , which is spoken by the vast majority of the inhabitants. In the European part of the kingdom two other regional languages are recognised under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. The first of these recognised regional languages is Low Saxon Nedersaksisch in Dutch. Low Saxon consists of several dialects spoken in the north and east, like Twents in the region of Twente , and Drents in the province of Drenthe. Secondly, Limburgish is also recognised as a regional language. It consists of Dutch varieties of Meuse-Rhenish Franconian languages and is spoken in the south-eastern province of Limburg. Ripuarian language , which is spoken in Kerkrade and Vaals in the form of, respectively, the Kerkrade dialect and the Vaals dialect [] [] is not recognised as a regional language of the Netherlands. These dialects are however sometimes considered to be a part of or related to Limburgish. English has a formal status in the special municipalities of Saba and Sint Eustatius. It is widely spoken on these islands. Papiamento has a formal status in the special municipality of Bonaire. Yiddish and the Romani language were recognised in as non-territorial languages. In higher level secondary schools HAVO and VWO , the acquisition of two additional modern foreign language skills is mandatory during the first three years. Only during the last three years in VWO one foreign language is mandatory. Besides English, the standard modern languages are French and German , although schools can replace one of these modern languages with Chinese , Spanish , Russian , Italian , Turkish or Arabic. Religious identification in the Netherlands [6]. The Dutch are one of the least religious people in the world. Religion in the Netherlands was predominantly Christianity until late into the 20th century. Meanwhile, Lancashire and Kelly were also recaptured and Hagerty died of a fever. Historian Jennifer Ashton has uncovered evidence suggesting neither Badger nor Hagerty were present on the Venus when it was captured. Ashton says Charlotte Badger is listed in the New South Wales convict muster every year from her arrival in until aside from one census in the year the Venus was captured. One possible explanation for her absence is that Badger was on the Venus but returned to Australia shortly afterwards but Ashton considers that scenario very unlikely. Ashton also found documents showing Hagerty was granted a full pardon and returned to England in and says there is no record of her ever returning to Australia. She says this documentary evidence directly contradicts the depositions given by the captain of the Venus which names Badger and Hagerty as mutineers but says it is possible there was a case of mistaken identity. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Charlotte Badger. Bromsgrove , England. Oxford University Press. Retrieved Ian Schofield - Instagram with lover Dani Reardon. Daniel Isaksson - YouTube. Deidre Pagnanelli deidre. Dolly Muscle E - YouTube. 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Dallas Malloy - bodybuilder, pioneer in women's boxing. Dana Shemesh Ifbb Pro - Instagram. Ian Schofield - Instagram with lover Dani Reardon. Daniel Isaksson - YouTube. Deidre Pagnanelli deidre. Dolly Muscle E - YouTube. Elinor Medhammar - Min fortsatta Catherine holland land of venus mot scenen. Elisabeth Flexes - YouTube. Catherine holland land of venus Sletten elisabethsletten - Instagram. Liz Bradshaw Fitness - YouTube. New Hello - goodbye, a new hello by Emma Reunanen.

Erin Simmons Fitness - a healthy lifestyle simplified. Erin Stern - Metal Physical. Eulalia Santos on Facebook. Team Elegant Physique - founded by Evelyn Mihaly. Francesca Mujica chekalareina - Instagram. Gert YouTube Sixty9shots - dutch female muscle. Reddit san antonio riverwalk. Charlotte Badger — in or after [1] Is an English born Australian woman, widely considered to be the first Australian female pirate.

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She was also one of the first two white female settlers in New Zealand. Badger was born inthe daughter of Thomas and Ann Badger. She was baptised on 31 July She was sentenced to seven years' penal servitude in New South Wales.

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Badger arrived on the Earl Cornwallis in Inshe travelled with her child aboard the Venuswith plans to become a servant in Van Catherine holland land of venus Land. On the ship's landing in Sydney, they reported that Charlotte Badger and her daughter had stopped there eight years earlier. Some stories suggest that Catherine holland land of venus other mutineers all fled but were eventually caught and hanged, [4] while others suggest that they went pirating after Badger, Hagerty, Lancashire and Kelly left, despite not knowing how to navigate the ship.

Meanwhile, Lancashire and Kelly were also recaptured and Hagerty died of a fever. Historian Jennifer Ashton has uncovered evidence suggesting neither Badger nor Hagerty were present on the Venus when it was captured.

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Ashton says Charlotte Badger is listed in the New South Wales convict muster every year from her arrival in until aside from one census in the year the Venus Catherine holland land of venus captured.

One possible explanation for her absence is that Badger was on the Venus but returned to Australia shortly afterwards but Ashton considers that scenario very unlikely. Ashton also found documents showing Hagerty was granted a full pardon and returned to England in and says there is no record of her ever returning to Australia.

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She says this documentary evidence directly contradicts the depositions given by the captain of the Venus which names Badger and Hagerty as mutineers but says it is possible Catherine holland land of venus was a case of mistaken identity. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Charlotte Badger. BromsgroveEngland.

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Oxford University Press. Retrieved Badger, Charlotte".

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Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Retrieved 23 June Sydney Morning Herald. Kelly Gardiner. Archived from the original on December 10, Radio New Zealand.

Continue reading Publishing. The Sound of Catherine holland land of venus. Pirates Privateers Timeline of piracy Pirate films Women in piracy Fictional pirates Pirates in popular culture List of ships attacked by Somali pirates.

Return to Treasure Island. Category Portal. Convicts in Australia. James Blackburn Francis Greenway. The Transports Our Country's Good Authority control LCCN: Retrieved from " https: Hidden categories: All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from September CS1: Namespaces Article Talk.

Catherine holland land of venus Read Edit View history. This page was last edited on 13 Marchat By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

naked chicas Watch Hbo oz nude men Video Shemales Fuckings. Retrieved 25 January Retrieved 26 August Archived from the original on 1 February CS1 maint: Archived from the original on 10 May Retrieved 10 May Retrieved 18 June Retrieved 3 August Retrieved 31 March The Daily Telegraph. Columbia Encyclopedia. Columbia University Press. Retrieved 1 February The Promised Lands: University of Pennsylvania Press. The New Cambridge Modern History: Volume 2, The Reformation, — Retrieved 11 March Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Background to beakers: Extra text: Open Access Leiden University. Faculty of Archaeology, Leiden. Archived from the original PDF on 10 October Retrieved 7 July Prometheus, , pp. Retrieved 6 October Retrieved 28 February I, pp. PhD thesis , Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen, p. Why did they leave? Why did they stay? On continuity versus discontinuity from Roman times to Early Middle Ages in the western coastal area of the Netherlands. Walter de Gruyter. 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Retrieved 30 March Archived from the original PDF on 25 January Retrieved 17 May February Retrieved 18 March Archived from the original on 10 January Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek: Retrieved 16 May Archived from the original on 3 March The UnDutchables: An observation of the Netherlands, its culture and its inhabitants 3rd Ed. White-Boucke Publishing. Vossenstein, Dealing with the Dutch, Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau Den Haag. Retrieved 15 June — via https: Retrieved 15 June Archived from the original on 4 February Retrieved 30 June Dutch Daily News. Business Models of an Emerging Global Medium. Routledge; Archived from the original on 25 September Retrieved 21 August Archived from the original on 12 August New York: Reuters U. Retrieved 1 September Boston, MA: Oxfam America. Minna's Blog - Just another weblog by Minna Pajulahti. Monika Svobodova - YouTube. Morgan Langford Health Coach - my balanced bod. Nahla R. Natalie Newhart - YouTube. Natasha Aughey - YouTube. 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Pirates Privateers Timeline of piracy Pirate films Women in piracy Fictional pirates Pirates in popular culture List of ships attacked by Somali pirates. Return to Treasure Island. Category Portal. Convicts in Australia. James Blackburn Francis Greenway. The Transports Our Country's Good Authority control LCCN: Retrieved from " https: Hidden categories: All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from September CS1: Search Obituaries from more than 25, funeral homes. Updated Daily. Search Obituaries from more than 1, Newspapers worldwide. The state of Florida is a peninsula surrounded by water which features the longest coastline in the lower 48 states..

Seven years' transportation to New South Wales. Piratical career.

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Charlotte Badger ( – in or after ) Is an English born Australian woman, widely aboard the Catherine holland land of venus, with plans Catherine holland land of venus become a servant in Van Diemens Land. Badger and another convict, Catherine Hagerty, talked the men on board neither Badger nor Hagerty were present on the Venus when it was captured. Cathelijne Gort, Cath Work Body Fit - Instagram of Cathelijne Gort.

Catherine Holland, An intimate view of Catherine. Cathy LeFrancois, Cathy LeFrancois - IFBB. Browse the most recent Florida obituaries and condolences. Celebrate and remember the lives we have lost in Florida. Cambridge Core - Regional History after - At Home with the Empire - edited by Catherine Hall.

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