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Gender differences and cognition among older adults

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Nenas sex Watch Asian pornstar hardcore anal Video Natural xxx. Since we have about a four-times-larger effect at the community level compared to the family level for mental intactness, this is unlikely to be a complete explanation. We should be better able to disentangle this possibility when panel data of the CHARLS data become available in a few years. The association of community Ln PCE with cognitive ability is much higher for Chinese women compared to Chinese men, even after we include education of respondents. The significant urban-female interaction goes away in this model indicating that this effect is better proxied by community Ln PCE. In sharp contrast to the much stronger female association with Ln PCE at the community level, we did not find any statistically significant difference of Ln family PCE between Chinese women and Chinese men not shown. These results suggest that the favoritism of men in low-income settings appears to be mainly a community rather than individual level effect. Once again the final column in Table 5 presents the IRT variant of this model and once again these results are substantively the same as in the OLS model. What is it about poor and rural communities in China and elsewhere that produces such large differences in cognitive outcomes? One reason is the restriction in educational opportunities for girls in poor communities. The education opportunity was mainly given to boys when community resources are constrained while girls work on the farm and around the house. In poor communities, when many families treat their daughters this way, this practice becomes culture and more tolerated. This we believe is why community income level has an effect independent of family income. While education is not specifically sex-segregated in China, girls were much less likely to go to school and this difference is larger in poor communities. In addition, women are less likely to take public roles in rural villages. Not until recently did women have the right to be elected as village leaders in remote areas. This lack of experience in public roles also may have reduced the opportunity to promote their cognitive functioning. Until , women only amounted to In sharp contrast, Beaman et al. Another way poor communities may impact cognition of girls favoring boys is through nuitrition. While we have no direct measure of nutrition intake of the CHARLS respondents when they were children, we do measure one of the later life markers of differential nutitrition during the chilhood years—their adult height. Mean adult height, particularly in the twentieth century, rose in many countries, especially developing countries, as economic development proceeded see Strauss and Thomas and Steckel Adult height is determined both by childhood height and the adolescent growth spurt. Childhood height is thought to be largely determined in pre-school ages, particularly before age three Martorell and Habicht Childhood height reflects health generally, not only nutritional intakes and expenditures, but some illnesses, particularly from infectious diseases, and appears to be related to adult cognitive ability Case and Paxson Table 6 displays mean adult heights of women and men in centimeters alongside female-male difference in heights in our ten groups that rank communities by their average Ln PCE. To avoid confounding cohort differences in height and shrinkage at old age, we use a subsample comprised of people aged 55— The difference in female stature from the poorest to richest set of communities is over five centimeters. In sharp contrast, there is little change for men across these community groups so the male excess height is Communities are separated into ten groups and are then ranked from lowest 1 to highest 10 based on mean community PCE. Height is measured in centimeters. The difference in heights between sexes across communities is not surprising given how traditional Chinese parents treat sons and daughters differently in educational opportunities. Because sons are more important to parents, their health and nutrition are given priority over girls. While not so dramatic as schooling, traditional Chinese parents tilt the dinner plate toward their sons when food takes a large chunk of the family resource. Daughters are taught from the beginning that their brothers are more valuable and they must not compete for food. This practice is contagious in the community. When brothers and sisters grow up witnessing this, when they marry and have children, they practice it too. Hence we see an impact of community income level independent of household incomes. Our analysis shows that there are large gender differences in cognition in China that are smaller among younger people in the CHARLS survey among those 45 years and older. The question we now ask is whether this narrowing of gender differences extends to even younger age groups as economic development in China proceeded rapidly across the last 20 years. Gender and age patterns of education are plotted in Figure 1 , as obtained from the latest Chinese One Percent Population Survey in The top part in this Figure shows the fraction of people who have not completed primary school by gender and age, while the bottom part depicts the fraction of those with college and above. Within the 45 and over age groups represented in CHARLS, the Survey shows the same large female deficit in schooling except that this deficit characterizes all provinces in China. There has been a steady erosion of the female deficit in schooling across younger birth cohorts as gender education disparites steadily decline over time until the gender differences for both primary and college or above almost converges in the youngest generation. The strong role education plays in cognitive ability predicts that these female education advances should carry with them improvements in cognitive ability of women compared to men. SAGE has the advantage of covering the complete age distribution with its cognition measures. While the main emphasis in SAGE was health, a cognitive battery also was included. While SAGE measure of episodic memory is also based on an average of immediate and delayed recall, these ten words are repeated to the respondent three times before the respondent has to repeat them. As one would expect, memory is much improved with the three repetitions and it is improved more among those whose memory is not as good. The second SAGE cognition measure is digit span, which asks respondents to repeat a series of numbers either as heard or backward. These tests measured concentration, attention, and immediate memory. Table 7a shows gender specific means of these SAGE cognitive measures alongside the female-male difference in cognitive scores. But these gender deficits decline systematically with age so that there is little difference in either word recall or digit span among those in the youngest age group, 25—34 years old. Table 7b displays American differences in memory recall the same immediate and delayed recall ten word test as CHARLS , and TICS cognitive battery, meant to capture intactness or mental status of individuals. Within age groups, American women score somewhat better in terms of memory and the TICS score does not differ significantly between genders. Like all research, our study has limitations. In addition to aging and cohort effects, another factor that could impact gender differences in cognitive ability is mortality selection effects. If cognitive ability is protective on mortality Batty et al. Because Chinese men die at a younger age than Chinese women do, mortality selection in cognition could contribute to a cognitive differential favoring men. Unfortunately, we are unable to find any credible estimates of cohort survival curves for these Chinese birth cohorts in part due to the quality of data in those days and a weaker Population Science. In addition, one would have to know the size of mortality selection by cognition by sex , which is not possible in Chinese data. Finally, direct measurement of many of the factors we think are important such as gender differences in nutrition and social and political roles are not available especially during the period when these older adults were young. In this paper, we examined the size and determinants of gender differences in cognition among those 45 and over in two provinces in China. We found large cognitive differences to the detriment of women that were mitigated but not fully explained by large gender differences in education among these generations of Chinese people. These gender differences in cognition are concentrated within and related to the poorer communities in China with the gender differences being more sensitive to community-level attributes than to family-level attributes, with economic resources measured by per capita expenditures being the primary illustration of that point. In traditional poor Chinese communities, there are strong economic incentives to favor boys at the expense of girls not only in their education outcomes, but in their nutrition and eventually their adult height. Among younger cohorts of young adults in China, there is no longer any gender disparity in cognitive ability, perhaps suggesting that with continued economic development, China will move toward the American case where cognitive skills of women are at least equal to those of men. The data used in this article can be obtained beginning May through April from the authors. The difference between men and women concerns whether they live in the same village in the same county in which they were born. Especially in rural areas, these very nearby villages to where women were born have about the same economic status of the village in which they were born. Thus the data in Table 3 should be a good approximation for both Chinese men and women. Answers are aggregated into a single mental status score that ranges from 0 to 10 McArdle et al. Xiaoyan Lei, Peking University. Yuqing Hu, Duke University. John J. McArdle, University of Southern California. James P. Yaohui Zhao, Peking University. J Hum Resour. Author manuscript; available in PMC Dec McArdle , professor of economics , James P. Smith , senior economist , and Yaohui Zhao , professor of economics. Xiaoyan Lei, Peking University;. Copyright notice. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract In this paper, we model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. Introduction Cognitive skills are increasingly recognized as key to better decision-making in many domains of life. Data A. Table 1 Gender Difference in Cognitive Function: Open in a separate window. Education An important dimension of socioeconomic status SES used in any cognition analysis is education, which is well known to be directly associated with increased cognitive ability in several dimensions. Table 2 Education: Percent Distribution by Gender and Age Groups. Cognition and Communities Especially in rural China, communities are important social and economic entities that have significant impacts on their residents. Empirical Models In this section, we present our main empirical analysis aimed at identifying the principal determinants of cognition among CHARLS respondents and at isolating factors that may help to explain gender disparities in cognition. Standard errors in parentheses. Figure 1. Table 7 Gender Differences in Cognition. Conclusions In this paper, we examined the size and determinants of gender differences in cognition among those 45 and over in two provinces in China. Footnotes 1 When more than one age-eligible household lives in a dwelling unit, CHARLS randomly selected one and then determined the number of age-eligible members within a household and then randomly selected one. References Batty G. David, Deary Ian J. Systematic Review. Annals of Epidemiology. Powerful Women: Does Exposure Reduce Bias? Quarterly Journal of Economics. A Policy Experiment in India. Journal of Human Capital. Stature and Status: Height, Ability, and Labor Market Outcomes. Journal of Political Economy. Aging-Associated Cognitive Decline. International Psychogeriatrics. Handbook of Modern Item Response Theory. Growth in Early Childhood in Developing Countries. Falkner F, Tanner JM, editors. Human Growth. Wise David. Explorations in the Economics of Aging. University of Chicago Press; Chicago, Ill: Human Abilities in Theory and Practice. Erlbaum; Mahwah, N. The protocol was approved by the ADNI. The current study sample consisted of 69 ADNI-2 participants, including 29 males and 40 females. Participants were selected if they were diagnosed as having SMC. Diagnosis was made using the standard criteria described in the ADNI-2 procedures manual 2. All participants underwent a standardized cognitive evaluation including the following items: MMSE Folstein et al. Mean florbetapir standard uptake value ratios SUVRs were measured within four regions frontal, anterior cingulate, precuneus, and parietal cortex and normalized to the whole cerebellum reference region. The ADNI neuroimaging standardized procedure has been described in great detail elsewhere Jack et al. Cortical reconstruction and volumetric segmentation were obtained using FreeSurfer version 5. Further details on ADNI imaging protocols can be found at http: All statistics were performed using SPSS software version Figures were produced using GraphPad Prism 6. The overall sample was comprised of 69 participants including 29 males and 40 females were downloaded from the ADNI website. Socio-demographics and clinical characteristics of the study sample are presented in Table 1. Gender differences in neuropsychological performances in the study sample are demonstrated in Table 2 and Figure 1. Figure 1. Comparison of neuropsychological measures in men and women with significant memory concern SMC. Scatter plots displaying cognitive function in males and females. Table 3. No significant differences were observed between males and females on other cognitive domains. Our results are in concordance with previous studies showing that the female advantage in verbal memory task was more apparent than men Herlitz et al. These observations suggest that gender discrepancies among SMC subjects might be appropriate to a specific cognitive domain. If so, then implementing sex-adjusted norms in clinical memory tests might ameliorate the diagnostic accuracy in women. Elevated risk of AD was in women compared to men, although the underlying mechanism remains elusive as previously reported Seshadri et al. It is noteworthy that we observed significant reduction in volumetric measurements of hippocampus, EC, fusiform gyrus and MTA in females with SMC subjects. Consistent with the cognitive reserve theory Klonoff and Landrine, ; Stern et al. However, women may have more accelerated decline once neuropathology reached a threshold level Klonoff and Landrine, ; Stern et al. Several limitations should be mentioned in the current study. First, a simple cross-sectional design used in the study does not definitively permit the theory that female advantage in verbal memory may act as a specific form of cognitive reserve, further longitudinal researches would be more necessary to closely confirm the conclusions. Third, the relatively small group size could limit the interpretation of our results, larger sample of numbers need to be collected in future studies. In summary, the present results highlighted the urgent need to consider the sex differences in cognition evaluation, which contributes to clinical diagnosis even in preclinical stages, such as SMC. LW and TT: All authors approved the final version of the manuscript for publication. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Private sector contributions are facilitated by the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health 5. Bittner, T. Alzheimers Dement. Brodaty, H. Psychiatry 12, — Cummings, J. The neuropsychiatric inventory: Neurology 44, — Domoto-Reilly, K. Neuroimage 63, — Fischl, B. Automated manifold surgery: IEEE Trans. Imaging 20, 70— Whole brain segmentation: Neuron 33, — Fleisher, A. Sex, apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 status and hippocampal volume in mild cognitive impairment. Folstein, M. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Grill, J. Aging 34, 62— Han, X. Reliability of MRI-derived measurements of human cerebral cortical thickness: Neuroimage 32, — Herlitz, A. Gender differences in episodic memory. Jack, C. MRI methods. Imaging 27, — Jenkins, A. Self-reported memory complaints: Neurology Jessen, F. Klonoff, E. Sex roles, occupational roles, and symptom-reporting: Landau, S. Amyloid deposition, hypometabolism, and longitudinal cognitive decline. Lin, K. Marked gender differences in progression of mild cognitive impairment over 8 years. McDonald, C. Regional rates of neocortical atrophy from normal aging to early Alzheimer disease. Neurology 73, — Mitchell, A. Risk of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in older people with subjective memory complaints: Acta Psychiatr. Mohs, R. Development of cognitive instruments for use in clinical trials of antidementia drugs: Alzheimer Dis. Morris, J. The clinical dementia rating CDR:.

The more replicated findings about gender difference in cognitive performance suggest female superiority on visuomotor speed and language. PDF | The more replicated findings about gender difference in cognitive performance suggest female superiority on visuomotor speed and language ability and. In this paper, we model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. Modeled after the. men, a gender difference that grows among older Chinese cohorts.

We re cognitive skills among middle age and older people in the Chinese Gender differences and cognition among older adults.

These. Gender Differences in Cognition among Read more Adults in China. Xiaoyan Lei. Peking University. Yuqing Hu. Duke University. John J. McArdle. University of.

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These cognitive skills include episodic memory and components Gender differences and cognition among older adults intact mental status. We find large raw differences in these cognitive skills in that there is a female deficit in cognitive skills that is smaller among more recent birth cohorts.

In addition to personal demographic attributes, we attempt to explain these gender differences by examining the education accomplishments of Chinese men and women in these birth cohorts and the economic resources of the communities in which they live.

We find that at low levels of economic resources Chinese communities invest in the cognitive skills of boys at the expense of girls.

However, as the economic resources of these communities improve, this gender bias gradually dissipates and eventually disappears or moves actually favoring women. This paper is divided into five sections. Section III outlines statistical models estimated to uncover the underlying reasons for gender differences in cognition in the Chinese context.

Wwwexxx Viedocom Watch Hamster granny sex videos Video Bestialty porn. Answers to these questions are aggregated into a single mental status score that ranges from 0 to Table 1 presents mean levels of our two measures of cognitive ability separately for Chinese men and women stratified by age using samples of those providing their own responses. Across all ages, Chinese men remember about a quarter of a word more than their female counterparts—a differential in favor of men that exists in all age groups. The male cognitive advantage is even larger for intact mental status where Chinese men achieve a score almost a full point above that of Chinese women. Gender Difference is Female—Male. Mental Intactness is based on components of the TICS battery scaled from 0—11 that are meant to capture intact mental status. Episodic Memory is an average of the immediate and delayed ten word recall. For both men and women, each cognitive measure declines sharply with age, a decline that is likely a combination of both cohort and aging effects. Prior research has suggested strong normative age declines in most cognitive functions reflecting different aspects of adult cognitive profiles Levy ; McArdle et al. In a country such as China which has experienced rapid economic development during the last 30 years with impressive increases in schooling for each new generation, one would anticipate significant cohort effects in cognition. We come back to this issue of cohort and aging effects below. There is an indication for both mental intactness and episodic memory of smaller differences among younger cohorts in Table 1. Because the literature has shown that expenditure provides a better welfare measure than income or wealth in developing countries Strauss and Thomas , our main measure of economic status is Ln per capita expenditures Ln PCE. Household expenditures are collected at weekly, monthly and yearly frequencies to minimize recall bias. For example, food expenditure is collected weekly and includes expenditures on dining out, food bought from market and values of home-produced food. Monthly-based expenditures are those usually spent each month, including fees for utilities, nannies, communications, etc. Yearly-based items record expenditures occurred occasionally in a year, including traveling, expenditures on durables, and education and training fees. An important dimension of socioeconomic status SES used in any cognition analysis is education, which is well known to be directly associated with increased cognitive ability in several dimensions. McArdle and Woodcock The educational level for older Chinese respondents is generally quite low and its distribution is skewed, with about 58 percent having failed to finish elementary school 39 percent are illiterate and 19 percent can read or write , and only a small portion 7 percent for women and 13 percent for men reaching a high school level education or above. Education declines with age, but men have higher education levels than women in all age groups. Women older than 75 are the most disadvantaged: Although both men and women have become more educated over time, a significant gender discrepancy still exists that is becoming smaller in the youngest cohorts compared to the oldest cohorts in Table 2. Especially in rural China, communities are important social and economic entities that have significant impacts on their residents. Strauss et al. Why communities are so central to understanding China is a key question and answers may depend on the specific life outcome. In terms of sex discrimination, where Chinese rural villages are closeknit communities where residents inherit, preserve, and then pass on the same culture, girls may not be treated similarly relative to boys based on village attributes. These community-based traits may impact cognitive ability of resident girls and boys, and eventually women and men. Table 3 documents for each of the ten community groups 1 indicates poorest and 10 richest average mental intactness and episodic memory scores for women and men separately alongside gender difference in scores. Statistical tests are provided to indicate significance of the gender difference. As the average community Ln PCE increases, cognitive scores of its residents increase sharply for both men and women, but this increase is far more dramatic for Chinese women compared to Chinese men. Among Chinese women, average level of mental intactness is more than two-thirds as high in the richest group of communites compared to the poorest. For men, this increase in mean mental intactness score was about 29 percent. The comparable ratio for espisodic memory between the poorest and richest communities for women is 2. Chinese male cognitive ability also rises as communites become better off economically but nowhere near as much as for women. In the poorest set of Chinese communities, the female deficit in mental intactness is about four units and in episodic memory it is two more remembered words. These female cognitive deficits decline as we move into better off communities although there is actually a female cognitive bonus to Chinese women in the richest set of communities. Communities are placed into ten groups from lowest to highest based on the mean Ln household per capita expenditures PCE of all residents of those communities minus the respondent. Fraction Illiterate represents the fraction who can neither read nor write. The last three set of columns in Table 3 shows fractions of women and men in these ten community groups who are illiterate with the final column tallying female-male difference in illiteracy rates. In the poorest set of communities, over 90 percent of female residents over age 45 are illiterate compared to 39 percent of men. While female rates of illiteracy exceed male rates in all ten groups, the gender difference becomes much smaller as we reach the richest group of communities. In this section, we present our main empirical analysis aimed at identifying the principal determinants of cognition among CHARLS respondents and at isolating factors that may help to explain gender disparities in cognition. To facilitate interpreting our results, Appendix Table A1 lists relevant descriptive statistics especially for our mental intactness model. We analyze two measures of cognition— episodic memory and intact mental status. Since age distributions do not vary much between men and women, the age-adjusted models reproduce gender cognition differences in Table 1 —about a 1. Both gender differences are statistically significant at the one percent level. Columns 1—3 are models with Mental Intactness on a scale of 0—11 as the dependent variable, while Columns 4 and 5 model Episodic Memory the average of the ten word memory recalls immediate and delayed. IRT models the response of a respondent of a given ability to each item in the test. The estimated coefficients from the Bayesian expected posterior model are listed. In the second set of models, we add variables in domains that could possibly explain the gender differences—education categories, geography province: These OLS models in Table 4 indicate that cognitively ability increases monotonically with more years of schooling. Compared to those with no education, people who completed middle school scored 2. Since Chinese women have much lower levels of education than Chinese men do, this strong association with education implies that education explains part of the gender difference in cognition. The other three new variables behave as expected—both cognitive scores are higher in urban areas, in the more economically advanced province of Zhejiang, and for those respondents who are taller mental intactness only and who live in households with higher per capita expenditures. While the inclusion of these variables eliminates the gender difference in episodic memory, the gender difference in mental intactness remains statistically significant. Two issues with OLS estimation of these cognitive scores must be addressed— the implicit assumption of equal intervals between scores and the possibility of ceiling effects that could lead to a narrowing of the gender gap as the population mean score approached the ceiling. Ceiling effects are very unlikely for word recall. In our ten-word recall measure, more than 95 percent of respondents score 6 or less similar for men and women. However, this is potentially a more serious issue for the TICS measure since about 22 percent reached the highest score—19 percent for men and 25 percent for women so it is not that different between the sexes. The estimated coefficients from the Bayesian expected posterior model are listed in the third column of Table 4 next to the corresponding OLS model in Column 2. The two models are substantively identical suggesting that ceiling effects are unlikely to be driving our gender results. Because statistically significant gender differences only remain for mental intactness, we explore further this cognitive outcome in Table 5. The first model adds measures of average economic well-being of communities where respondents reside community Ln PCE , an interaction of urban residence with being female, and a set of Prefecture dummies to control for any other unobserved geographic factors. Prefectures are administrative units that govern a combination of counties in China. There are 19 prefectures in our two Provinces. To some extent, this could reflect a greater role for measurement error at the individual family level compared with the community level. It also could reflect the fact that community-level measures capture in part elements of permanent income. Since we have about a four-times-larger effect at the community level compared to the family level for mental intactness, this is unlikely to be a complete explanation. We should be better able to disentangle this possibility when panel data of the CHARLS data become available in a few years. The association of community Ln PCE with cognitive ability is much higher for Chinese women compared to Chinese men, even after we include education of respondents. The significant urban-female interaction goes away in this model indicating that this effect is better proxied by community Ln PCE. In sharp contrast to the much stronger female association with Ln PCE at the community level, we did not find any statistically significant difference of Ln family PCE between Chinese women and Chinese men not shown. These results suggest that the favoritism of men in low-income settings appears to be mainly a community rather than individual level effect. Once again the final column in Table 5 presents the IRT variant of this model and once again these results are substantively the same as in the OLS model. What is it about poor and rural communities in China and elsewhere that produces such large differences in cognitive outcomes? One reason is the restriction in educational opportunities for girls in poor communities. The education opportunity was mainly given to boys when community resources are constrained while girls work on the farm and around the house. In poor communities, when many families treat their daughters this way, this practice becomes culture and more tolerated. This we believe is why community income level has an effect independent of family income. While education is not specifically sex-segregated in China, girls were much less likely to go to school and this difference is larger in poor communities. In addition, women are less likely to take public roles in rural villages. Not until recently did women have the right to be elected as village leaders in remote areas. This lack of experience in public roles also may have reduced the opportunity to promote their cognitive functioning. Until , women only amounted to In sharp contrast, Beaman et al. Another way poor communities may impact cognition of girls favoring boys is through nuitrition. While we have no direct measure of nutrition intake of the CHARLS respondents when they were children, we do measure one of the later life markers of differential nutitrition during the chilhood years—their adult height. Mean adult height, particularly in the twentieth century, rose in many countries, especially developing countries, as economic development proceeded see Strauss and Thomas and Steckel Adult height is determined both by childhood height and the adolescent growth spurt. Childhood height is thought to be largely determined in pre-school ages, particularly before age three Martorell and Habicht Childhood height reflects health generally, not only nutritional intakes and expenditures, but some illnesses, particularly from infectious diseases, and appears to be related to adult cognitive ability Case and Paxson Table 6 displays mean adult heights of women and men in centimeters alongside female-male difference in heights in our ten groups that rank communities by their average Ln PCE. To avoid confounding cohort differences in height and shrinkage at old age, we use a subsample comprised of people aged 55— The difference in female stature from the poorest to richest set of communities is over five centimeters. In sharp contrast, there is little change for men across these community groups so the male excess height is Communities are separated into ten groups and are then ranked from lowest 1 to highest 10 based on mean community PCE. Height is measured in centimeters. The difference in heights between sexes across communities is not surprising given how traditional Chinese parents treat sons and daughters differently in educational opportunities. Because sons are more important to parents, their health and nutrition are given priority over girls. While not so dramatic as schooling, traditional Chinese parents tilt the dinner plate toward their sons when food takes a large chunk of the family resource. Daughters are taught from the beginning that their brothers are more valuable and they must not compete for food. This practice is contagious in the community. When brothers and sisters grow up witnessing this, when they marry and have children, they practice it too. Hence we see an impact of community income level independent of household incomes. Our analysis shows that there are large gender differences in cognition in China that are smaller among younger people in the CHARLS survey among those 45 years and older. The question we now ask is whether this narrowing of gender differences extends to even younger age groups as economic development in China proceeded rapidly across the last 20 years. Gender and age patterns of education are plotted in Figure 1 , as obtained from the latest Chinese One Percent Population Survey in The top part in this Figure shows the fraction of people who have not completed primary school by gender and age, while the bottom part depicts the fraction of those with college and above. Within the 45 and over age groups represented in CHARLS, the Survey shows the same large female deficit in schooling except that this deficit characterizes all provinces in China. There has been a steady erosion of the female deficit in schooling across younger birth cohorts as gender education disparites steadily decline over time until the gender differences for both primary and college or above almost converges in the youngest generation. The strong role education plays in cognitive ability predicts that these female education advances should carry with them improvements in cognitive ability of women compared to men. SAGE has the advantage of covering the complete age distribution with its cognition measures. While the main emphasis in SAGE was health, a cognitive battery also was included. While SAGE measure of episodic memory is also based on an average of immediate and delayed recall, these ten words are repeated to the respondent three times before the respondent has to repeat them. As one would expect, memory is much improved with the three repetitions and it is improved more among those whose memory is not as good. The second SAGE cognition measure is digit span, which asks respondents to repeat a series of numbers either as heard or backward. These tests measured concentration, attention, and immediate memory. Table 7a shows gender specific means of these SAGE cognitive measures alongside the female-male difference in cognitive scores. But these gender deficits decline systematically with age so that there is little difference in either word recall or digit span among those in the youngest age group, 25—34 years old. Table 7b displays American differences in memory recall the same immediate and delayed recall ten word test as CHARLS , and TICS cognitive battery, meant to capture intactness or mental status of individuals. Within age groups, American women score somewhat better in terms of memory and the TICS score does not differ significantly between genders. Neuroimage 32, — Herlitz, A. Gender differences in episodic memory. Jack, C. MRI methods. Imaging 27, — Jenkins, A. Self-reported memory complaints: Neurology Jessen, F. Klonoff, E. Sex roles, occupational roles, and symptom-reporting: Landau, S. Amyloid deposition, hypometabolism, and longitudinal cognitive decline. Lin, K. Marked gender differences in progression of mild cognitive impairment over 8 years. McDonald, C. Regional rates of neocortical atrophy from normal aging to early Alzheimer disease. Neurology 73, — Mitchell, A. Risk of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in older people with subjective memory complaints: Acta Psychiatr. Mohs, R. Development of cognitive instruments for use in clinical trials of antidementia drugs: Alzheimer Dis. Morris, J. The clinical dementia rating CDR: Neurology 43, — Nasreddine, Z. Perrotin, A. Subjective cognition and amyloid deposition imaging: Petersen, R. Mild cognitive impairment: Neurologia 15, 93— Neurology 74, — Pfeffer, R. Measurement of functional activities in older adults in the community. Reisberg, B. Outcome over seven years of healthy adults with and without subjective cognitive impairment. Reitan, R. The relation of the trail making test to organic brain damage. Roberts, R. The incidence of MCI differs by subtype and is higher in men: Neurology 78, — Saykin, A. Older adults with cognitive complaints show brain atrophy similar to that of amnestic MCI. Neurology 67, — Scheef, L. Glucose metabolism, gray matter structure, and memory decline in subjective memory impairment. Neurology 79, — Schmidt, M. Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test: A Handbook. Los Angeles, CA: Psychological Services. Google Scholar. Seshadri, S. The lifetime risk of stroke: Stroke 37, — Stern, Y. What is cognitive reserve? Theory and research application of the reserve concept. JAMA , — Exploring the neural basis of cognitive reserve. Sundermann, E. Alzheimers Dis. Better verbal memory in women than men in MCI despite similar levels of hippocampal atrophy. Neurology 86, — Female advantage in verbal memory: Neurology 87, — Visser, P. Lancet Neurol. Wang, Y. Selective changes in white matter integrity in MCI and older adults with cognitive complaints. Acta , — Yesavage, J. Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: Aging Neurosci. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Lijun Wang, lijunwang A complete listing of ADNI investigators can be found at: Toggle navigation. Login Register Login using. You can login by using one of your existing accounts..

Our main empirical findings are in Section IV and the final section highlights conclusions. Zhejiang, located in the developed coastal region, is one of the most dynamic provinces given its fast economic growth, small-scale industrialization, and export orientation, while Gansu, located in the less developed western region, is one of the poorest, most rural provinces in China.

Among all provinces inZhejiang had the highest rural and urban incomes per capita after Shanghai and Beijing, while Gansu had the Gender differences and cognition among older adults lowest rural per capita income and fourth lowest urban per capita income. The sampling design of the wave of CHARLS was aimed to be representative of residents 45 and older in these two provinces.

The sampling protocol is that one member of the household age 45 and over is sampled and their spouse no matter what age is automatically included. In our analysis, the respondent Gender differences and cognition among older adults spouse are both included if they are at least 45 years old.

Total sample size was 2, people in 1, households.

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The overall response rate was 85 percent; 79 percent in urban areas and 90 percent in rural areas. The response rate was about the same in the two provinces, These high response rates reflected the detailed procedures Gender differences and cognition among older adults in place to insure a high response to the survey. Following McArdle et al. Episodic memory is a necessary component of reasoning in all dimensions.

Our second cognitive measure is based on some components of the mental status questions of the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status TICS battery established to capture intactness or mental status of individuals. Answers to read more questions are aggregated into a single mental status score that ranges from 0 to Table 1 presents mean levels of our two measures of cognitive ability separately for Chinese men and women stratified by age using samples of those providing their own responses.

Across all ages, Chinese men remember about a quarter of a word more than their Gender differences and cognition among older adults counterparts—a differential in favor of men that exists in all age groups. The male cognitive advantage is even larger for intact mental status where Chinese men achieve a score almost a full point above that of Chinese women.

Gender Difference is Female—Male. Mental Intactness is based on components of the TICS battery scaled from 0—11 that are meant to capture intact mental status. Episodic Memory is an average of the immediate and delayed ten word recall. For both men and women, each cognitive measure declines sharply with age, a decline that is likely a combination of both cohort and aging effects. Prior research has suggested strong normative age declines in most Gender differences and cognition among older adults functions reflecting different aspects of adult cognitive profiles Levy ; McArdle et al.

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In a country such as China which has experienced rapid economic development during the last 30 years with impressive increases in schooling for each new generation, one would anticipate significant cohort effects in cognition.

We come back Gender differences and cognition among older adults this issue of cohort and aging effects below. There is an indication for both mental intactness and episodic memory of smaller differences among younger cohorts in Table 1. Because the literature has shown that expenditure provides a better welfare measure than income or wealth in developing countries Strauss and Thomasour main measure of economic status is Ln per capita expenditures Ln PCE.

Household expenditures are collected at weekly, monthly and yearly frequencies to minimize recall bias. For example, food expenditure is collected weekly and includes expenditures on dining out, food bought from market Finger in values of home-produced food. Monthly-based expenditures are those usually spent each month, including fees for utilities, nannies, communications, etc. Yearly-based items record expenditures occurred occasionally in a year, including traveling, expenditures on durables, and education and training fees.

An important dimension of socioeconomic status SES used in any cognition analysis is education, which is well known to be directly associated with increased cognitive ability in several dimensions.

McArdle and Woodcock The educational level for older Chinese respondents is generally quite low and its distribution is skewed, with about 58 percent having failed to finish elementary school 39 percent are illiterate and 19 percent can read or writeand only a small portion 7 percent for women and 13 percent for men read more a high school level education or above.

Education declines with age, but men have higher education levels than women in all age groups. Women older than 75 are the most Gender differences and cognition among older adults Although both men and women have become more educated over time, a significant gender discrepancy still exists that is becoming smaller in the youngest cohorts compared to the oldest cohorts in Table 2.

Especially in rural China, communities are important social and economic entities that have significant impacts on their residents. Strauss et al. Why communities are so central to understanding China is Gender differences and cognition among older adults key question and answers may depend on the specific life outcome. In terms of sex discrimination, where Chinese rural villages are closeknit communities where residents inherit, preserve, and then pass on the same culture, girls may not be treated similarly relative to boys based on village attributes.

These community-based traits may impact cognitive ability of resident girls and boys, and eventually women and men. Table 3 documents for each of the ten community groups 1 indicates poorest and 10 richest average mental intactness and episodic memory scores for women and men separately alongside gender difference in scores.

Statistical tests are provided to indicate significance of the gender difference. As the average community Ln PCE increases, cognitive scores of its residents increase sharply for both men and women, but this increase is far more dramatic for Chinese women compared to Chinese men. Among Chinese women, average level of mental intactness is more than two-thirds as high in the richest group of Angelina castro fucked porn compared to the poorest.

For men, this increase in mean mental intactness score Gender differences and cognition among older adults about 29 percent. The comparable ratio for espisodic memory between the poorest and richest communities for women is 2.

Chinese male cognitive ability also rises as communites become better off economically but nowhere near as much as for women. Gender differences and cognition among older adults

Lesbian videos Watch Totally free people find Video Artista nude. Since we have about a four-times-larger effect at the community level compared to the family level for mental intactness, this is unlikely to be a complete explanation. We should be better able to disentangle this possibility when panel data of the CHARLS data become available in a few years. The association of community Ln PCE with cognitive ability is much higher for Chinese women compared to Chinese men, even after we include education of respondents. The significant urban-female interaction goes away in this model indicating that this effect is better proxied by community Ln PCE. In sharp contrast to the much stronger female association with Ln PCE at the community level, we did not find any statistically significant difference of Ln family PCE between Chinese women and Chinese men not shown. These results suggest that the favoritism of men in low-income settings appears to be mainly a community rather than individual level effect. Once again the final column in Table 5 presents the IRT variant of this model and once again these results are substantively the same as in the OLS model. What is it about poor and rural communities in China and elsewhere that produces such large differences in cognitive outcomes? One reason is the restriction in educational opportunities for girls in poor communities. The education opportunity was mainly given to boys when community resources are constrained while girls work on the farm and around the house. In poor communities, when many families treat their daughters this way, this practice becomes culture and more tolerated. This we believe is why community income level has an effect independent of family income. While education is not specifically sex-segregated in China, girls were much less likely to go to school and this difference is larger in poor communities. In addition, women are less likely to take public roles in rural villages. Not until recently did women have the right to be elected as village leaders in remote areas. This lack of experience in public roles also may have reduced the opportunity to promote their cognitive functioning. Until , women only amounted to In sharp contrast, Beaman et al. Another way poor communities may impact cognition of girls favoring boys is through nuitrition. While we have no direct measure of nutrition intake of the CHARLS respondents when they were children, we do measure one of the later life markers of differential nutitrition during the chilhood years—their adult height. Mean adult height, particularly in the twentieth century, rose in many countries, especially developing countries, as economic development proceeded see Strauss and Thomas and Steckel Adult height is determined both by childhood height and the adolescent growth spurt. Childhood height is thought to be largely determined in pre-school ages, particularly before age three Martorell and Habicht Childhood height reflects health generally, not only nutritional intakes and expenditures, but some illnesses, particularly from infectious diseases, and appears to be related to adult cognitive ability Case and Paxson Table 6 displays mean adult heights of women and men in centimeters alongside female-male difference in heights in our ten groups that rank communities by their average Ln PCE. To avoid confounding cohort differences in height and shrinkage at old age, we use a subsample comprised of people aged 55— The difference in female stature from the poorest to richest set of communities is over five centimeters. In sharp contrast, there is little change for men across these community groups so the male excess height is Communities are separated into ten groups and are then ranked from lowest 1 to highest 10 based on mean community PCE. Height is measured in centimeters. The difference in heights between sexes across communities is not surprising given how traditional Chinese parents treat sons and daughters differently in educational opportunities. Because sons are more important to parents, their health and nutrition are given priority over girls. While not so dramatic as schooling, traditional Chinese parents tilt the dinner plate toward their sons when food takes a large chunk of the family resource. Daughters are taught from the beginning that their brothers are more valuable and they must not compete for food. This practice is contagious in the community. When brothers and sisters grow up witnessing this, when they marry and have children, they practice it too. Hence we see an impact of community income level independent of household incomes. Our analysis shows that there are large gender differences in cognition in China that are smaller among younger people in the CHARLS survey among those 45 years and older. The question we now ask is whether this narrowing of gender differences extends to even younger age groups as economic development in China proceeded rapidly across the last 20 years. Gender and age patterns of education are plotted in Figure 1 , as obtained from the latest Chinese One Percent Population Survey in The top part in this Figure shows the fraction of people who have not completed primary school by gender and age, while the bottom part depicts the fraction of those with college and above. Within the 45 and over age groups represented in CHARLS, the Survey shows the same large female deficit in schooling except that this deficit characterizes all provinces in China. There has been a steady erosion of the female deficit in schooling across younger birth cohorts as gender education disparites steadily decline over time until the gender differences for both primary and college or above almost converges in the youngest generation. The strong role education plays in cognitive ability predicts that these female education advances should carry with them improvements in cognitive ability of women compared to men. SAGE has the advantage of covering the complete age distribution with its cognition measures. While the main emphasis in SAGE was health, a cognitive battery also was included. While SAGE measure of episodic memory is also based on an average of immediate and delayed recall, these ten words are repeated to the respondent three times before the respondent has to repeat them. As one would expect, memory is much improved with the three repetitions and it is improved more among those whose memory is not as good. The second SAGE cognition measure is digit span, which asks respondents to repeat a series of numbers either as heard or backward. These tests measured concentration, attention, and immediate memory. Table 7a shows gender specific means of these SAGE cognitive measures alongside the female-male difference in cognitive scores. But these gender deficits decline systematically with age so that there is little difference in either word recall or digit span among those in the youngest age group, 25—34 years old. Table 7b displays American differences in memory recall the same immediate and delayed recall ten word test as CHARLS , and TICS cognitive battery, meant to capture intactness or mental status of individuals. Within age groups, American women score somewhat better in terms of memory and the TICS score does not differ significantly between genders. Like all research, our study has limitations. In addition to aging and cohort effects, another factor that could impact gender differences in cognitive ability is mortality selection effects. If cognitive ability is protective on mortality Batty et al. Because Chinese men die at a younger age than Chinese women do, mortality selection in cognition could contribute to a cognitive differential favoring men. Unfortunately, we are unable to find any credible estimates of cohort survival curves for these Chinese birth cohorts in part due to the quality of data in those days and a weaker Population Science. In addition, one would have to know the size of mortality selection by cognition by sex , which is not possible in Chinese data. Finally, direct measurement of many of the factors we think are important such as gender differences in nutrition and social and political roles are not available especially during the period when these older adults were young. In this paper, we examined the size and determinants of gender differences in cognition among those 45 and over in two provinces in China. We found large cognitive differences to the detriment of women that were mitigated but not fully explained by large gender differences in education among these generations of Chinese people. These gender differences in cognition are concentrated within and related to the poorer communities in China with the gender differences being more sensitive to community-level attributes than to family-level attributes, with economic resources measured by per capita expenditures being the primary illustration of that point. In traditional poor Chinese communities, there are strong economic incentives to favor boys at the expense of girls not only in their education outcomes, but in their nutrition and eventually their adult height. Among younger cohorts of young adults in China, there is no longer any gender disparity in cognitive ability, perhaps suggesting that with continued economic development, China will move toward the American case where cognitive skills of women are at least equal to those of men. The data used in this article can be obtained beginning May through April from the authors. The difference between men and women concerns whether they live in the same village in the same county in which they were born. Especially in rural areas, these very nearby villages to where women were born have about the same economic status of the village in which they were born. Thus the data in Table 3 should be a good approximation for both Chinese men and women. Answers are aggregated into a single mental status score that ranges from 0 to 10 McArdle et al. Xiaoyan Lei, Peking University. Yuqing Hu, Duke University. John J. McArdle, University of Southern California. James P. Yaohui Zhao, Peking University. J Hum Resour. Author manuscript; available in PMC Dec McArdle , professor of economics , James P. Smith , senior economist , and Yaohui Zhao , professor of economics. Xiaoyan Lei, Peking University;. Copyright notice. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract In this paper, we model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. Introduction Cognitive skills are increasingly recognized as key to better decision-making in many domains of life. Data A. Table 1 Gender Difference in Cognitive Function: Open in a separate window. Education An important dimension of socioeconomic status SES used in any cognition analysis is education, which is well known to be directly associated with increased cognitive ability in several dimensions. Table 2 Education: Percent Distribution by Gender and Age Groups. Cognition and Communities Especially in rural China, communities are important social and economic entities that have significant impacts on their residents. Empirical Models In this section, we present our main empirical analysis aimed at identifying the principal determinants of cognition among CHARLS respondents and at isolating factors that may help to explain gender disparities in cognition. Standard errors in parentheses. Figure 1. Table 7 Gender Differences in Cognition. Conclusions In this paper, we examined the size and determinants of gender differences in cognition among those 45 and over in two provinces in China. Footnotes 1 When more than one age-eligible household lives in a dwelling unit, CHARLS randomly selected one and then determined the number of age-eligible members within a household and then randomly selected one. References Batty G. David, Deary Ian J. Systematic Review. Annals of Epidemiology. Powerful Women: Does Exposure Reduce Bias? Quarterly Journal of Economics. A Policy Experiment in India. Journal of Human Capital. Stature and Status: Height, Ability, and Labor Market Outcomes. Journal of Political Economy. Aging-Associated Cognitive Decline. International Psychogeriatrics. Handbook of Modern Item Response Theory. Growth in Early Childhood in Developing Countries. Falkner F, Tanner JM, editors. Human Growth. Wise David. Explorations in the Economics of Aging. University of Chicago Press; Chicago, Ill: Human Abilities in Theory and Practice. Erlbaum; Mahwah, N. Mean florbetapir standard uptake value ratios SUVRs were measured within four regions frontal, anterior cingulate, precuneus, and parietal cortex and normalized to the whole cerebellum reference region. The ADNI neuroimaging standardized procedure has been described in great detail elsewhere Jack et al. Cortical reconstruction and volumetric segmentation were obtained using FreeSurfer version 5. Further details on ADNI imaging protocols can be found at http: All statistics were performed using SPSS software version Figures were produced using GraphPad Prism 6. The overall sample was comprised of 69 participants including 29 males and 40 females were downloaded from the ADNI website. Socio-demographics and clinical characteristics of the study sample are presented in Table 1. Gender differences in neuropsychological performances in the study sample are demonstrated in Table 2 and Figure 1. Figure 1. Comparison of neuropsychological measures in men and women with significant memory concern SMC. Scatter plots displaying cognitive function in males and females. Table 3. No significant differences were observed between males and females on other cognitive domains. Our results are in concordance with previous studies showing that the female advantage in verbal memory task was more apparent than men Herlitz et al. These observations suggest that gender discrepancies among SMC subjects might be appropriate to a specific cognitive domain. If so, then implementing sex-adjusted norms in clinical memory tests might ameliorate the diagnostic accuracy in women. Elevated risk of AD was in women compared to men, although the underlying mechanism remains elusive as previously reported Seshadri et al. It is noteworthy that we observed significant reduction in volumetric measurements of hippocampus, EC, fusiform gyrus and MTA in females with SMC subjects. Consistent with the cognitive reserve theory Klonoff and Landrine, ; Stern et al. However, women may have more accelerated decline once neuropathology reached a threshold level Klonoff and Landrine, ; Stern et al. Several limitations should be mentioned in the current study. First, a simple cross-sectional design used in the study does not definitively permit the theory that female advantage in verbal memory may act as a specific form of cognitive reserve, further longitudinal researches would be more necessary to closely confirm the conclusions. Third, the relatively small group size could limit the interpretation of our results, larger sample of numbers need to be collected in future studies. In summary, the present results highlighted the urgent need to consider the sex differences in cognition evaluation, which contributes to clinical diagnosis even in preclinical stages, such as SMC. LW and TT: All authors approved the final version of the manuscript for publication. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Private sector contributions are facilitated by the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health 5. Bittner, T. Alzheimers Dement. Brodaty, H. Psychiatry 12, — Cummings, J. The neuropsychiatric inventory: Neurology 44, — Domoto-Reilly, K. Neuroimage 63, — Fischl, B. Automated manifold surgery: IEEE Trans. Imaging 20, 70— Whole brain segmentation: Neuron 33, — Fleisher, A. Sex, apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 status and hippocampal volume in mild cognitive impairment. Folstein, M. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Grill, J. Aging 34, 62— Han, X. Reliability of MRI-derived measurements of human cerebral cortical thickness: Neuroimage 32, — Herlitz, A. Gender differences in episodic memory. Jack, C. MRI methods. Imaging 27, — Jenkins, A. Self-reported memory complaints: Neurology Jessen, F. Klonoff, E. Sex roles, occupational roles, and symptom-reporting: Landau, S. Amyloid deposition, hypometabolism, and longitudinal cognitive decline. Lin, K. Marked gender differences in progression of mild cognitive impairment over 8 years. McDonald, C. Regional rates of neocortical atrophy from normal aging to early Alzheimer disease. Neurology 73, — Mitchell, A. Risk of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in older people with subjective memory complaints: Acta Psychiatr. Mohs, R. Development of cognitive instruments for use in clinical trials of antidementia drugs: Alzheimer Dis. Morris, J. The clinical dementia rating CDR: Neurology 43, — Nasreddine, Z. Perrotin, A. Subjective cognition and amyloid deposition imaging: Petersen, R. Mild cognitive impairment:.

In the poorest set of Chinese communities, the female deficit in mental Gender differences and cognition among older adults is about four units and in episodic memory it is two more remembered words. These female cognitive deficits decline as we move into better off communities although there is actually a female cognitive bonus to Chinese women in the richest set of communities. Communities are placed into ten groups from lowest to highest based on the mean Ln household per capita expenditures PCE of all residents of those communities minus the respondent.

Fraction Illiterate represents the fraction who can neither read nor write.

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The last three set of columns in Table 3 shows fractions of women and men in these ten https://tamilinfoservice.com/faceslapping/article-116.php groups who are illiterate with the final column tallying female-male difference in illiteracy rates.

In the poorest set of communities, over 90 percent of female residents over age 45 are illiterate compared to 39 percent of men.

While female rates of illiteracy exceed male rates in all ten groups, the gender difference becomes much smaller as we reach the richest group of communities. In this section, we present our main empirical analysis aimed at identifying the principal determinants of cognition among CHARLS respondents and at isolating factors that may help to explain gender disparities in cognition.

To facilitate interpreting our results, Appendix Table A1 lists relevant descriptive statistics especially for our mental intactness model. We analyze two measures of cognition— episodic memory and intact mental status. Since age distributions do not vary much between men and Gender differences and cognition among older adults, the age-adjusted models reproduce gender cognition differences in Table 1 —about a 1.

Both gender differences are statistically significant at the one percent level. Columns 1—3 are models with Mental Intactness on a scale of 0—11 as the dependent variable, while Columns 4 and 5 model Episodic Memory the average of the ten word memory recalls immediate and delayed.

IRT models the response of a respondent of a given ability to each item in the test. The estimated coefficients from the Bayesian expected posterior model are listed. In the second set of models, we add variables in domains that could possibly explain the gender differences—education categories, geography province: These OLS models in Table 4 indicate that cognitively ability increases monotonically with more years of schooling.

Compared to those with no education, people who completed middle school scored 2. Since Chinese women have much lower levels of education than Chinese men do, this strong association with education implies that education explains part of the gender difference in cognition. The Gender differences and cognition among older adults three new variables behave as expected—both cognitive scores are higher in urban areas, in the more economically advanced province of Zhejiang, and for those respondents who are taller mental intactness only and who live in households with higher Gender differences and cognition among older adults capita expenditures.

While the inclusion of these Gender differences and cognition among older adults eliminates the gender difference in episodic memory, the gender difference in mental intactness remains statistically significant.

Two issues with OLS estimation of these cognitive scores must be addressed— the implicit assumption of equal intervals between scores and the possibility of ceiling effects that could lead to a narrowing of the gender gap as the population mean score approached the ceiling.

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Ceiling effects are very unlikely for word recall. In our ten-word recall measure, more than 95 percent of respondents score 6 or less similar for men and women.

However, this is potentially a more serious issue for the TICS measure since Gender differences and cognition among older adults 22 percent reached the highest score—19 percent for men and 25 percent for women so it is not that different between the sexes.

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The estimated coefficients from the Bayesian expected posterior model are listed in the third column of Read article 4 next to the corresponding OLS model in Column 2.

The two models are substantively identical suggesting that ceiling effects are unlikely to be driving our gender results. Because statistically significant gender differences only remain for mental intactness, we explore further this cognitive outcome Gender differences and cognition among older adults Table 5.

The first model adds measures of average economic well-being of communities where respondents reside community Ln PCEan interaction of urban residence with being female, and a set of Prefecture dummies to control for any other unobserved geographic factors. Prefectures are administrative units that govern a combination of counties in China.

There are 19 prefectures in our two Provinces. To some extent, this could reflect a greater role for measurement error at the individual family level compared with the community level. It Gender differences and cognition among older adults could reflect the fact that community-level measures capture in part elements of permanent income.

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Since we have about a four-times-larger effect at the community level compared to the family level for mental intactness, this is unlikely to be a complete explanation. We should be better able to disentangle this possibility when panel data of the CHARLS data become available in a few years. The association of Gender differences and cognition among older adults Ln PCE with cognitive ability is much higher for Chinese women compared to Chinese men, even after we include education of respondents.

The significant urban-female interaction Gender differences and cognition among older adults away in this model indicating that this effect is better proxied by community Ln Continue reading. In sharp contrast to the much stronger female association with Ln PCE at the community level, we did not find any statistically significant difference of Ln family PCE between Chinese women and Chinese men not shown.

These results suggest that the favoritism of men in low-income settings appears to be mainly a community rather than individual level effect. Once again the final column in Table 5 presents the IRT variant of this model and once again these results are substantively the same as in the OLS model.

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What is it read article poor and rural communities in Gender differences and cognition among older adults and elsewhere that produces such large differences in cognitive outcomes?

One reason is the restriction in educational opportunities for girls in poor communities. The education opportunity was mainly given to boys when community resources are constrained while girls work on the Gender differences and cognition among older adults and around the house.

In poor communities, when many families treat their daughters this way, this practice becomes culture and more tolerated. This we believe is why community income level has an effect independent of family income.

While education is not specifically sex-segregated in China, girls were much less likely to go to school and this difference is larger in poor communities. In addition, women are less likely to take public roles in rural villages.

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Not until recently did women have the right to be elected as village leaders in remote areas. This lack of experience in public roles also may have reduced the opportunity to promote their cognitive functioning. Untilwomen only amounted to In sharp contrast, Beaman et al. Another Gender differences and cognition among older adults poor communities may impact cognition of girls favoring boys is through nuitrition.

While we have no direct measure of nutrition intake of the CHARLS respondents when they were children, we do measure one of the later life markers of differential nutitrition during the chilhood years—their adult height.

Mean adult height, particularly in the twentieth century, rose in many countries, especially developing countries, as economic development proceeded see Strauss and Thomas and Steckel Adult height is determined both by childhood height and the adolescent growth spurt. Childhood height is thought to be largely determined in pre-school ages, particularly before age three Martorell and Habicht Childhood height reflects health generally, not only nutritional intakes and expenditures, but some illnesses, particularly from infectious diseases, and appears to be related to adult cognitive ability Case and Paxson Table 6 displays mean adult heights of women and men in centimeters alongside female-male difference in heights in our ten groups that rank communities visit web page their average Ln PCE.

To avoid confounding see more differences in height and shrinkage at old age, we use a subsample comprised of people aged 55— The difference in female stature from the poorest to richest set of communities is over five centimeters. In sharp contrast, there is little change for men across these community groups so the male excess height is Communities are separated into ten groups and are then ranked Gender differences and cognition among older adults lowest 1 to highest 10 based on mean community PCE.

Height is measured in centimeters. The difference in heights between sexes across communities is not surprising given how traditional Chinese parents treat sons and daughters differently in educational opportunities. Because sons are more important to parents, their health and nutrition are given priority over girls.

While not so dramatic as schooling, traditional Chinese parents tilt the dinner plate toward their sons when food takes a large chunk of the family resource. Daughters are taught from the beginning that their brothers are more valuable and they must not compete for food. To date, it has three phases: This Gender differences and cognition among older adults was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of each ADNI site. The protocol was approved by the ADNI. The current study sample consisted of 69 ADNI-2 participants, including 29 males and 40 females.

Participants were selected if they were diagnosed as having SMC. Diagnosis was made using the standard criteria described in the ADNI-2 procedures manual 2. All participants underwent a standardized cognitive evaluation including the following items: MMSE Folstein et al. Mean florbetapir standard uptake value ratios SUVRs were measured within four regions frontal, anterior cingulate, precuneus, and parietal cortex and normalized to the whole cerebellum reference region. Please click for source ADNI neuroimaging standardized procedure has been described in great detail elsewhere Jack et al.

Cortical reconstruction and volumetric segmentation were obtained using FreeSurfer version 5. Further details on ADNI imaging protocols can be found at http: All statistics were Gender differences and cognition among older adults using SPSS software version Figures were produced using GraphPad Prism 6.

The overall sample was comprised of 69 participants including 29 males and 40 females were downloaded from the ADNI website.

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Socio-demographics and clinical characteristics of the study sample are presented in Table 1. Gender differences in neuropsychological performances in the study sample are demonstrated in Table 2 and Figure 1.

Figure 1. Comparison of neuropsychological measures in men and women with significant memory concern SMC. Scatter plots displaying cognitive function in males and females. Table 3. No significant differences were observed between males and females on other cognitive domains.

Our results are in concordance with previous studies showing that the female advantage in verbal memory task was more apparent than men Herlitz et al. These observations suggest that gender discrepancies among SMC subjects might be appropriate to a specific cognitive domain. If so, then implementing sex-adjusted norms in clinical memory tests might ameliorate the diagnostic accuracy in read article. Elevated risk of AD was in women compared Gender differences and cognition among older adults men, although the underlying mechanism remains elusive as previously reported Seshadri et al.

It is noteworthy that we observed significant reduction in volumetric measurements of hippocampus, Gender differences and cognition among older adults, fusiform gyrus and MTA in females with SMC subjects.

Consistent with the cognitive reserve theory Klonoff and Landrine, ; Stern et al. However, women may have more accelerated decline once neuropathology reached a threshold level Klonoff and Landrine, ; Stern et al. Several limitations should be mentioned in the current study.

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First, a simple cross-sectional design used in the study does not definitively permit the theory that female advantage in verbal memory may act as a specific form of cognitive reserve, further longitudinal researches would be more necessary to closely confirm the conclusions. Third, the relatively small group size could limit the interpretation of our results, larger sample of numbers need to be collected in future studies.

Pics porn Watch Amateur blowjob pov and cum Video Pussyxxx pics. Once again the final column in Table 5 presents the IRT variant of this model and once again these results are substantively the same as in the OLS model. What is it about poor and rural communities in China and elsewhere that produces such large differences in cognitive outcomes? One reason is the restriction in educational opportunities for girls in poor communities. The education opportunity was mainly given to boys when community resources are constrained while girls work on the farm and around the house. In poor communities, when many families treat their daughters this way, this practice becomes culture and more tolerated. This we believe is why community income level has an effect independent of family income. While education is not specifically sex-segregated in China, girls were much less likely to go to school and this difference is larger in poor communities. In addition, women are less likely to take public roles in rural villages. Not until recently did women have the right to be elected as village leaders in remote areas. This lack of experience in public roles also may have reduced the opportunity to promote their cognitive functioning. Until , women only amounted to In sharp contrast, Beaman et al. Another way poor communities may impact cognition of girls favoring boys is through nuitrition. While we have no direct measure of nutrition intake of the CHARLS respondents when they were children, we do measure one of the later life markers of differential nutitrition during the chilhood years—their adult height. Mean adult height, particularly in the twentieth century, rose in many countries, especially developing countries, as economic development proceeded see Strauss and Thomas and Steckel Adult height is determined both by childhood height and the adolescent growth spurt. Childhood height is thought to be largely determined in pre-school ages, particularly before age three Martorell and Habicht Childhood height reflects health generally, not only nutritional intakes and expenditures, but some illnesses, particularly from infectious diseases, and appears to be related to adult cognitive ability Case and Paxson Table 6 displays mean adult heights of women and men in centimeters alongside female-male difference in heights in our ten groups that rank communities by their average Ln PCE. To avoid confounding cohort differences in height and shrinkage at old age, we use a subsample comprised of people aged 55— The difference in female stature from the poorest to richest set of communities is over five centimeters. In sharp contrast, there is little change for men across these community groups so the male excess height is Communities are separated into ten groups and are then ranked from lowest 1 to highest 10 based on mean community PCE. Height is measured in centimeters. The difference in heights between sexes across communities is not surprising given how traditional Chinese parents treat sons and daughters differently in educational opportunities. Because sons are more important to parents, their health and nutrition are given priority over girls. While not so dramatic as schooling, traditional Chinese parents tilt the dinner plate toward their sons when food takes a large chunk of the family resource. Daughters are taught from the beginning that their brothers are more valuable and they must not compete for food. This practice is contagious in the community. When brothers and sisters grow up witnessing this, when they marry and have children, they practice it too. Hence we see an impact of community income level independent of household incomes. Our analysis shows that there are large gender differences in cognition in China that are smaller among younger people in the CHARLS survey among those 45 years and older. The question we now ask is whether this narrowing of gender differences extends to even younger age groups as economic development in China proceeded rapidly across the last 20 years. Gender and age patterns of education are plotted in Figure 1 , as obtained from the latest Chinese One Percent Population Survey in The top part in this Figure shows the fraction of people who have not completed primary school by gender and age, while the bottom part depicts the fraction of those with college and above. Within the 45 and over age groups represented in CHARLS, the Survey shows the same large female deficit in schooling except that this deficit characterizes all provinces in China. There has been a steady erosion of the female deficit in schooling across younger birth cohorts as gender education disparites steadily decline over time until the gender differences for both primary and college or above almost converges in the youngest generation. The strong role education plays in cognitive ability predicts that these female education advances should carry with them improvements in cognitive ability of women compared to men. SAGE has the advantage of covering the complete age distribution with its cognition measures. While the main emphasis in SAGE was health, a cognitive battery also was included. While SAGE measure of episodic memory is also based on an average of immediate and delayed recall, these ten words are repeated to the respondent three times before the respondent has to repeat them. As one would expect, memory is much improved with the three repetitions and it is improved more among those whose memory is not as good. The second SAGE cognition measure is digit span, which asks respondents to repeat a series of numbers either as heard or backward. These tests measured concentration, attention, and immediate memory. Table 7a shows gender specific means of these SAGE cognitive measures alongside the female-male difference in cognitive scores. But these gender deficits decline systematically with age so that there is little difference in either word recall or digit span among those in the youngest age group, 25—34 years old. Table 7b displays American differences in memory recall the same immediate and delayed recall ten word test as CHARLS , and TICS cognitive battery, meant to capture intactness or mental status of individuals. Within age groups, American women score somewhat better in terms of memory and the TICS score does not differ significantly between genders. Like all research, our study has limitations. In addition to aging and cohort effects, another factor that could impact gender differences in cognitive ability is mortality selection effects. If cognitive ability is protective on mortality Batty et al. Because Chinese men die at a younger age than Chinese women do, mortality selection in cognition could contribute to a cognitive differential favoring men. Unfortunately, we are unable to find any credible estimates of cohort survival curves for these Chinese birth cohorts in part due to the quality of data in those days and a weaker Population Science. In addition, one would have to know the size of mortality selection by cognition by sex , which is not possible in Chinese data. Finally, direct measurement of many of the factors we think are important such as gender differences in nutrition and social and political roles are not available especially during the period when these older adults were young. In this paper, we examined the size and determinants of gender differences in cognition among those 45 and over in two provinces in China. We found large cognitive differences to the detriment of women that were mitigated but not fully explained by large gender differences in education among these generations of Chinese people. These gender differences in cognition are concentrated within and related to the poorer communities in China with the gender differences being more sensitive to community-level attributes than to family-level attributes, with economic resources measured by per capita expenditures being the primary illustration of that point. In traditional poor Chinese communities, there are strong economic incentives to favor boys at the expense of girls not only in their education outcomes, but in their nutrition and eventually their adult height. Among younger cohorts of young adults in China, there is no longer any gender disparity in cognitive ability, perhaps suggesting that with continued economic development, China will move toward the American case where cognitive skills of women are at least equal to those of men. The data used in this article can be obtained beginning May through April from the authors. The difference between men and women concerns whether they live in the same village in the same county in which they were born. Especially in rural areas, these very nearby villages to where women were born have about the same economic status of the village in which they were born. Thus the data in Table 3 should be a good approximation for both Chinese men and women. Answers are aggregated into a single mental status score that ranges from 0 to 10 McArdle et al. Xiaoyan Lei, Peking University. Yuqing Hu, Duke University. John J. McArdle, University of Southern California. James P. Yaohui Zhao, Peking University. J Hum Resour. Author manuscript; available in PMC Dec McArdle , professor of economics , James P. Smith , senior economist , and Yaohui Zhao , professor of economics. Xiaoyan Lei, Peking University;. Copyright notice. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract In this paper, we model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. Introduction Cognitive skills are increasingly recognized as key to better decision-making in many domains of life. Data A. Table 1 Gender Difference in Cognitive Function: Open in a separate window. Education An important dimension of socioeconomic status SES used in any cognition analysis is education, which is well known to be directly associated with increased cognitive ability in several dimensions. Table 2 Education: Percent Distribution by Gender and Age Groups. Cognition and Communities Especially in rural China, communities are important social and economic entities that have significant impacts on their residents. Empirical Models In this section, we present our main empirical analysis aimed at identifying the principal determinants of cognition among CHARLS respondents and at isolating factors that may help to explain gender disparities in cognition. Standard errors in parentheses. Figure 1. Table 7 Gender Differences in Cognition. Conclusions In this paper, we examined the size and determinants of gender differences in cognition among those 45 and over in two provinces in China. Footnotes 1 When more than one age-eligible household lives in a dwelling unit, CHARLS randomly selected one and then determined the number of age-eligible members within a household and then randomly selected one. References Batty G. David, Deary Ian J. Systematic Review. Annals of Epidemiology. Powerful Women: Does Exposure Reduce Bias? Quarterly Journal of Economics. A Policy Experiment in India. Journal of Human Capital. Stature and Status: Height, Ability, and Labor Market Outcomes. Journal of Political Economy. Aging-Associated Cognitive Decline. International Psychogeriatrics. Handbook of Modern Item Response Theory. Growth in Early Childhood in Developing Countries. Falkner F, Tanner JM, editors. Human Growth. Wise David. Explorations in the Economics of Aging. University of Chicago Press; Chicago, Ill: Human Abilities in Theory and Practice. Erlbaum; Mahwah, N. Developmental Psychology. Psychology and Aging. Journal of Human Resources. Stature and the Standard of Living. Journal of Economic Literature. Journal of Population Ageing. Significant memory concern SMC; also known as subjective cognitive decline SCD or subjective memory impairment , is defined as a self-reported cognitive complaints in the absence of objective cognitive deficits, which is common in older adults Jessen et al. Taken together, these results suggested that SMC might be an initial symptomatic indicator of preclinical AD Jessen et al. Thus, sex-specific research in SMC is crucial to ensure early correct detection and pre-clinical intervention. However, to date, few studies have focused on the role of gender in SMC across a comprehensive profile of the cognitive assessment, neuroimaging and CSF AD biomarkers. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to go further to analyze whether the gender discrepancies are related to neuropsychological performance, CSF and positron emission tomography PET and magnetic resonance imaging MRI biomarkers of AD pathology in older adults reporting SMC. Weiner, MD. The Principal Investigator of this initiative is Michael W. ADNI is a global research effort that actively supports the investigation and development of treatments that slow or stop the progression of AD and subjects have been recruited from over 50 sites across the US and Canada. To date, it has three phases: This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of each ADNI site. The protocol was approved by the ADNI. The current study sample consisted of 69 ADNI-2 participants, including 29 males and 40 females. Participants were selected if they were diagnosed as having SMC. Diagnosis was made using the standard criteria described in the ADNI-2 procedures manual 2. All participants underwent a standardized cognitive evaluation including the following items: MMSE Folstein et al. Mean florbetapir standard uptake value ratios SUVRs were measured within four regions frontal, anterior cingulate, precuneus, and parietal cortex and normalized to the whole cerebellum reference region. The ADNI neuroimaging standardized procedure has been described in great detail elsewhere Jack et al. Cortical reconstruction and volumetric segmentation were obtained using FreeSurfer version 5. Further details on ADNI imaging protocols can be found at http: All statistics were performed using SPSS software version Figures were produced using GraphPad Prism 6. The overall sample was comprised of 69 participants including 29 males and 40 females were downloaded from the ADNI website. Socio-demographics and clinical characteristics of the study sample are presented in Table 1. Gender differences in neuropsychological performances in the study sample are demonstrated in Table 2 and Figure 1. Figure 1. Comparison of neuropsychological measures in men and women with significant memory concern SMC. Scatter plots displaying cognitive function in males and females. Table 3. No significant differences were observed between males and females on other cognitive domains. Our results are in concordance with previous studies showing that the female advantage in verbal memory task was more apparent than men Herlitz et al. These observations suggest that gender discrepancies among SMC subjects might be appropriate to a specific cognitive domain. If so, then implementing sex-adjusted norms in clinical memory tests might ameliorate the diagnostic accuracy in women. Elevated risk of AD was in women compared to men, although the underlying mechanism remains elusive as previously reported Seshadri et al. It is noteworthy that we observed significant reduction in volumetric measurements of hippocampus, EC, fusiform gyrus and MTA in females with SMC subjects. Consistent with the cognitive reserve theory Klonoff and Landrine, ; Stern et al. However, women may have more accelerated decline once neuropathology reached a threshold level Klonoff and Landrine, ; Stern et al. Several limitations should be mentioned in the current study. First, a simple cross-sectional design used in the study does not definitively permit the theory that female advantage in verbal memory may act as a specific form of cognitive reserve, further longitudinal researches would be more necessary to closely confirm the conclusions. Third, the relatively small group size could limit the interpretation of our results, larger sample of numbers need to be collected in future studies. In summary, the present results highlighted the urgent need to consider the sex differences in cognition evaluation, which contributes to clinical diagnosis even in preclinical stages, such as SMC. LW and TT: All authors approved the final version of the manuscript for publication. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Private sector contributions are facilitated by the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health 5. Bittner, T. Alzheimers Dement. Brodaty, H. Psychiatry 12, — Cummings, J. The neuropsychiatric inventory: Neurology 44, — Domoto-Reilly, K. Neuroimage 63, — Fischl, B. Automated manifold surgery: IEEE Trans. Imaging 20, 70— Whole brain segmentation: Neuron 33, — Fleisher, A. Sex, apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 status and hippocampal volume in mild cognitive impairment. Folstein, M. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Grill, J. Aging 34, 62— Han, X. Reliability of MRI-derived measurements of human cerebral cortical thickness: Neuroimage 32, — Herlitz, A. Gender differences in episodic memory. Jack, C. MRI methods. Imaging 27, — Jenkins, A. Self-reported memory complaints: Neurology Jessen, F. Klonoff, E. Sex roles, occupational roles, and symptom-reporting: Landau, S. Amyloid deposition, hypometabolism, and longitudinal cognitive decline. Lin, K. Marked gender differences in progression of mild cognitive impairment over 8 years. McDonald, C..

In summary, the present results highlighted the urgent need to consider the sex differences in cognition evaluation, which contributes to clinical diagnosis even in preclinical stages, such as SMC.

LW and TT: All authors approved the final version of the manuscript for publication. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of Gender differences and cognition among older adults commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Private sector contributions are facilitated by the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health 5. Bittner, T. Alzheimers Dement. Brodaty, H. Psychiatry 12, — Cummings, J. The neuropsychiatric inventory: Neurology 44, — Domoto-Reilly, K. Neuroimage 63, — Fischl, B. Automated manifold surgery: IEEE Trans. Imaging 20, 70— Whole brain segmentation: Neuron 33, — Fleisher, A. Sex, apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 status and hippocampal volume in mild cognitive impairment. Folstein, M. A practical method for grading the cognitive Gender differences and cognition among older adults of patients for the clinician.

Grill, J. Aging 34, 62— Han, X. Reliability of MRI-derived measurements of human cerebral cortical thickness: Neuroimage 32, — Herlitz, A.

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Gender differences in episodic memory. Jack, C. MRI methods. Imaging 27, — Jenkins, A. Self-reported memory complaints: Neurology Jessen, F. Klonoff, E. Sex roles, occupational roles, and symptom-reporting: Landau, S.

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Amyloid deposition, hypometabolism, and longitudinal cognitive decline. Lin, K. Marked gender differences in progression of mild cognitive Gender differences and cognition among older adults over 8 years. McDonald, C. Regional rates of neocortical atrophy from normal aging to early Alzheimer disease.

Neurology 73, — Mitchell, A. Risk of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in https://tamilinfoservice.com/nerdy/web-03-03-2020.php people with subjective memory complaints: Acta Psychiatr. Mohs, R. Development of cognitive instruments for use in clinical trials of antidementia drugs: Alzheimer Dis.

Girls squirting in leggings. In this paper, we model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. Our cognition measures proxy for two different dimensions of adult cognition—episodic memory and intact mental status. On both measures, Chinese women score much lower than do Chinese men, a gender difference that grows among older Chinese cohorts.

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We relate both these cognition scores to schooling, urban residence, family and community levels of economic resources, and height. We find that cognition is more closely related to mean community resources than to family resources, especially for women, suggesting that in traditional poor Chinese communities there are strong economic incentives to favor boys at the expense of girls.

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We also find that these gender differences in cognitive ability have been steadily decreasing across birth cohorts as the economy of China grew rapidly. Among cohorts of young adults in China, there is no longer any visit web page disparity in cognitive ability.

This parallels the situation in the United States where cognition scores of adult women actually exceed those of adult men. Cognitive skills are increasingly recognized as key to better decision-making in many domains of life.

Cognitive skills may be especially important for the older population in a country such as China where intermediary market institutions are not in Gender differences and cognition among older adults to help make financial decisions related to income security or health care provision.

Partly due to their longer life expectancies implying that many of their later life years will be without their husbands, cognitive skills may be even more critical for older Chinese women. Largely due Gender differences and cognition among older adults the absence of relevant data, the importance of cognitive skills for older populations has received little scholarly attention.

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In traditional low-income environments such as rural China, families may emphasize development of human capital skills favoring sons at the expense of daughters. This certainly appears to be the case with standard measures of human capital, such as schooling, where large gender gaps in schooling exist in low-income settings Parish and Willis As per-capita incomes increase and education expands, this expansion is much stronger for women than for men so that gender disparities begin to dissipate Becker et al.

In this paper, we investigate whether these gender disparities extend ever deeper to basic cognitive skills and how those gender disparities change as incomes improve over time. Using that data, we examine gender differences in cognitive skills among middle Gender differences and cognition among older adults and older people in the Chinese context.

These cognitive skills include episodic memory and components of fucking mature By woman hourse mental status. We find large raw differences in these cognitive skills in that there is a female deficit in cognitive skills that is smaller among more Gender differences and cognition among older adults birth cohorts. In addition to personal demographic attributes, we attempt to explain these gender differences by examining the education accomplishments of Chinese men and women in these birth cohorts and the economic resources of the communities in which they live.

We find that at low levels of economic resources Chinese communities invest in the cognitive skills of boys at the expense of girls. However, as the economic resources of these communities improve, this gender bias gradually dissipates and eventually disappears or moves actually favoring women.

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This paper is divided into five sections. Section III outlines statistical models estimated to uncover the underlying reasons for gender differences in cognition in the Chinese context. Our main empirical findings are in Section IV and the final section highlights conclusions.

Zhejiang, located in the developed coastal region, is one of the most dynamic provinces given its fast economic growth, small-scale industrialization, and export orientation, click to see more Gansu, located in the less developed western region, is one of the poorest, most rural provinces in China. Among all provinces inZhejiang Gender differences and cognition among older adults the highest rural and urban incomes per capita after Shanghai and Beijing, while Gansu had the second lowest rural per capita income and fourth lowest urban per capita income.

The sampling design of the wave of CHARLS was aimed to be representative of residents 45 and older in these two Gender differences and cognition among older adults. The sampling protocol is that one member of the household age 45 and over is sampled and their spouse no matter what age is automatically included.

In our analysis, the respondent and spouse are both included if they are at least 45 years old. Total sample size was 2, people in 1, households. The overall response rate was 85 percent; 79 percent in urban areas and 90 percent in rural areas.

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The response rate was about the same in the two provinces, These high response rates reflected the detailed procedures put in place to insure a high response to the survey. Following McArdle et al. Gender differences and cognition among older adults memory is a necessary component of reasoning in all dimensions. Our second cognitive measure is based on some components of the mental status questions of the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status TICS battery established to capture intactness or mental status of individuals.

Answers to these questions are aggregated into a single mental status score that ranges from 0 to Table 1 presents mean Gender differences and cognition among older adults of our two measures of cognitive ability separately for Chinese men and women stratified by age using samples of those providing their own responses.

Across all ages, Chinese men remember about a quarter of a word more visit web page their female counterparts—a differential in favor of men that exists in all age groups.

The male cognitive advantage is even larger for intact mental status where Chinese men achieve a score almost a full point above that of Chinese women. Gender Difference is Female—Male. Mental Intactness is based on components of the TICS battery scaled from 0—11 that are meant to capture intact mental status. Episodic Memory is an average of the immediate and delayed ten word recall. For both men and women, each cognitive measure declines sharply with age, a decline that is likely a combination of both cohort and aging effects.

Prior research has suggested strong normative age declines in most cognitive functions reflecting different aspects of adult cognitive profiles Levy ; McArdle et al.

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In a country such more info China which Gender differences and cognition among older adults experienced rapid economic development during Gender differences and cognition among older adults last 30 years with impressive increases in schooling for each new generation, one would anticipate significant cohort effects in cognition.

We come back to this issue of cohort and aging effects below. There is an indication for both mental intactness and episodic memory of smaller differences among younger cohorts in Table 1. Because the literature has shown that expenditure provides a better welfare measure than income or wealth in developing countries Strauss and Thomasour main measure of economic status is Ln per capita expenditures Ln PCE. Household expenditures are read more at weekly, monthly and yearly frequencies to minimize recall bias.

For example, food expenditure is collected weekly and includes expenditures on dining out, food bought from market and values of home-produced food.

Monthly-based expenditures are those usually spent each month, including fees for utilities, nannies, communications, etc. Yearly-based items record expenditures occurred occasionally in a year, including traveling, expenditures on durables, and education and training fees. An important dimension of socioeconomic status SES used in any cognition analysis is education, which is well known to be directly associated with increased cognitive ability in several dimensions.

McArdle and Woodcock The educational level for older Chinese respondents is generally quite low and its distribution is skewed, with about 58 percent having failed to finish elementary school 39 percent are illiterate and 19 percent can read or writeand only a small portion 7 percent for women and 13 percent for men reaching a high school level education or above.

Education declines with age, but men have higher education levels than women in all age groups. Women older than 75 are the most disadvantaged: Although both men and women have become more educated over time, a significant gender discrepancy still exists that is becoming smaller in the youngest cohorts compared to the oldest cohorts in Table 2.

Especially in rural China, communities are important social and economic entities that have click the following article impacts on their residents.

Strauss et al. Why communities are so central to understanding China is a key question and answers may depend on the specific life outcome. In terms of sex discrimination, where Chinese rural villages are Gender differences and cognition among older adults communities where residents inherit, preserve, and then pass on the same culture, girls may not be treated similarly relative to boys based on village attributes. These community-based traits may impact cognitive ability of resident girls and boys, and eventually women and men.

Table 3 documents for each of the ten community groups 1 indicates poorest and 10 richest average mental intactness and episodic memory scores for women and men separately alongside gender difference in scores.

Statistical tests are provided to indicate significance of the gender difference. As the Gender differences and cognition among older adults community Ln PCE increases, cognitive scores of its residents increase sharply for both men and women, but this increase is far more dramatic for Chinese women compared to Chinese men.

Among Chinese women, average level of mental intactness is more than two-thirds as high in the richest group of communites compared to the poorest. For men, this increase in mean mental intactness score was about 29 percent.

The comparable ratio for espisodic memory between the poorest and richest communities for women is 2. Chinese male cognitive ability also rises as communites become better off economically but nowhere near as much as for women. In the poorest set of Chinese communities, the female deficit in mental intactness is about four units and in episodic memory it is two more remembered words. These female cognitive deficits decline as we move into better off communities although there is actually a female cognitive bonus to Chinese women in the richest set of communities.

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Communities are placed into ten groups from lowest https://tamilinfoservice.com/big-ass/tag-2020-01-29.php highest based on the mean Ln household per capita expenditures PCE of all residents of those communities minus the respondent.

Fraction Illiterate represents the fraction who can neither read nor write. The last three set of columns in Table 3 shows fractions of women and men in these ten community groups who are illiterate with the final column tallying female-male difference in illiteracy rates.

  1. In this paper, we model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents.
  2. This study assessed the impact of gender on cognition, amyloid accumulation, the volumes of hippocampus, entorhinal cortex ECfusiform and medial temporal lobe MTA and cerebrospinal fluid CSF pathology biomarkers in patients reporting SMC. These findings highlight that gender discrepancies should be considered in the interpretation of cognitive measures when evaluating SMC.
  3. Mujeres negras desnudas con dredlocks
    • PDF | The more replicated findings about gender difference in cognitive performance suggest female superiority on visuomotor speed and language ability and. In this paper, we model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. Modeled after the. men, a gender difference that grows among older Chinese cohorts. We re cognitive skills among middle age and older people in the Chinese context. These.
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In the poorest set of communities, over 90 percent of female residents over Gender differences and cognition among older adults 45 are illiterate compared to 39 percent of men. While female rates of illiteracy exceed male rates in all ten groups, the gender difference becomes much smaller as we reach the richest group of communities. In this section, we present our main empirical analysis aimed at identifying the principal determinants of cognition among CHARLS respondents and at isolating factors that may help to explain gender disparities in cognition.

To facilitate interpreting our results, Appendix Table A1 lists relevant descriptive statistics especially for our mental intactness model.

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We analyze two measures of cognition— episodic memory and intact mental status. Since age distributions do not vary much between men and women, the age-adjusted models reproduce gender cognition differences in Table 1 —about a 1. Both gender differences are statistically significant at the one percent level. Columns 1—3 are models with Mental Intactness on a scale of 0—11 as the dependent variable, while Columns 4 and 5 model Episodic Memory the average of the ten word memory recalls immediate and delayed.

IRT models the response of a respondent of a given ability to each item in the test. The estimated coefficients from the Bayesian expected posterior model are listed. In the second set of models, we add variables in domains that could possibly explain the gender differences—education categories, geography province: These OLS models in Table 4 indicate that cognitively ability increases monotonically with Gender differences and cognition among older adults years of schooling.

Compared to those with no education, people who completed middle school scored 2. Since Chinese women have much lower levels of education than Chinese men do, this strong association with education implies that education explains part of the gender difference in cognition.

The other three new variables behave as expected—both cognitive Gender differences and cognition among older adults link higher in urban areas, in the more economically advanced province of Zhejiang, and for those respondents who are taller mental intactness only and who live in households with higher per capita expenditures.

While the inclusion of these variables eliminates the gender difference in episodic memory, the gender difference in mental intactness remains statistically significant. Two issues with OLS estimation of these cognitive scores Gender differences and cognition among older adults be addressed— the implicit assumption of equal intervals between scores and the possibility of ceiling effects that could lead to a narrowing of the gender gap as the population mean score approached the ceiling.

Ceiling effects are very unlikely for word recall.

Tittyfuck japanese Watch Amateur ffm threesome full movie Video Miuaisaki Porn. There is an indication for both mental intactness and episodic memory of smaller differences among younger cohorts in Table 1. Because the literature has shown that expenditure provides a better welfare measure than income or wealth in developing countries Strauss and Thomas , our main measure of economic status is Ln per capita expenditures Ln PCE. Household expenditures are collected at weekly, monthly and yearly frequencies to minimize recall bias. For example, food expenditure is collected weekly and includes expenditures on dining out, food bought from market and values of home-produced food. Monthly-based expenditures are those usually spent each month, including fees for utilities, nannies, communications, etc. Yearly-based items record expenditures occurred occasionally in a year, including traveling, expenditures on durables, and education and training fees. An important dimension of socioeconomic status SES used in any cognition analysis is education, which is well known to be directly associated with increased cognitive ability in several dimensions. McArdle and Woodcock The educational level for older Chinese respondents is generally quite low and its distribution is skewed, with about 58 percent having failed to finish elementary school 39 percent are illiterate and 19 percent can read or write , and only a small portion 7 percent for women and 13 percent for men reaching a high school level education or above. Education declines with age, but men have higher education levels than women in all age groups. Women older than 75 are the most disadvantaged: Although both men and women have become more educated over time, a significant gender discrepancy still exists that is becoming smaller in the youngest cohorts compared to the oldest cohorts in Table 2. Especially in rural China, communities are important social and economic entities that have significant impacts on their residents. Strauss et al. Why communities are so central to understanding China is a key question and answers may depend on the specific life outcome. In terms of sex discrimination, where Chinese rural villages are closeknit communities where residents inherit, preserve, and then pass on the same culture, girls may not be treated similarly relative to boys based on village attributes. These community-based traits may impact cognitive ability of resident girls and boys, and eventually women and men. Table 3 documents for each of the ten community groups 1 indicates poorest and 10 richest average mental intactness and episodic memory scores for women and men separately alongside gender difference in scores. Statistical tests are provided to indicate significance of the gender difference. As the average community Ln PCE increases, cognitive scores of its residents increase sharply for both men and women, but this increase is far more dramatic for Chinese women compared to Chinese men. Among Chinese women, average level of mental intactness is more than two-thirds as high in the richest group of communites compared to the poorest. For men, this increase in mean mental intactness score was about 29 percent. The comparable ratio for espisodic memory between the poorest and richest communities for women is 2. Chinese male cognitive ability also rises as communites become better off economically but nowhere near as much as for women. In the poorest set of Chinese communities, the female deficit in mental intactness is about four units and in episodic memory it is two more remembered words. These female cognitive deficits decline as we move into better off communities although there is actually a female cognitive bonus to Chinese women in the richest set of communities. Communities are placed into ten groups from lowest to highest based on the mean Ln household per capita expenditures PCE of all residents of those communities minus the respondent. Fraction Illiterate represents the fraction who can neither read nor write. The last three set of columns in Table 3 shows fractions of women and men in these ten community groups who are illiterate with the final column tallying female-male difference in illiteracy rates. In the poorest set of communities, over 90 percent of female residents over age 45 are illiterate compared to 39 percent of men. While female rates of illiteracy exceed male rates in all ten groups, the gender difference becomes much smaller as we reach the richest group of communities. In this section, we present our main empirical analysis aimed at identifying the principal determinants of cognition among CHARLS respondents and at isolating factors that may help to explain gender disparities in cognition. To facilitate interpreting our results, Appendix Table A1 lists relevant descriptive statistics especially for our mental intactness model. We analyze two measures of cognition— episodic memory and intact mental status. Since age distributions do not vary much between men and women, the age-adjusted models reproduce gender cognition differences in Table 1 —about a 1. Both gender differences are statistically significant at the one percent level. Columns 1—3 are models with Mental Intactness on a scale of 0—11 as the dependent variable, while Columns 4 and 5 model Episodic Memory the average of the ten word memory recalls immediate and delayed. IRT models the response of a respondent of a given ability to each item in the test. The estimated coefficients from the Bayesian expected posterior model are listed. In the second set of models, we add variables in domains that could possibly explain the gender differences—education categories, geography province: These OLS models in Table 4 indicate that cognitively ability increases monotonically with more years of schooling. Compared to those with no education, people who completed middle school scored 2. Since Chinese women have much lower levels of education than Chinese men do, this strong association with education implies that education explains part of the gender difference in cognition. The other three new variables behave as expected—both cognitive scores are higher in urban areas, in the more economically advanced province of Zhejiang, and for those respondents who are taller mental intactness only and who live in households with higher per capita expenditures. While the inclusion of these variables eliminates the gender difference in episodic memory, the gender difference in mental intactness remains statistically significant. Two issues with OLS estimation of these cognitive scores must be addressed— the implicit assumption of equal intervals between scores and the possibility of ceiling effects that could lead to a narrowing of the gender gap as the population mean score approached the ceiling. Ceiling effects are very unlikely for word recall. In our ten-word recall measure, more than 95 percent of respondents score 6 or less similar for men and women. However, this is potentially a more serious issue for the TICS measure since about 22 percent reached the highest score—19 percent for men and 25 percent for women so it is not that different between the sexes. The estimated coefficients from the Bayesian expected posterior model are listed in the third column of Table 4 next to the corresponding OLS model in Column 2. The two models are substantively identical suggesting that ceiling effects are unlikely to be driving our gender results. Because statistically significant gender differences only remain for mental intactness, we explore further this cognitive outcome in Table 5. The first model adds measures of average economic well-being of communities where respondents reside community Ln PCE , an interaction of urban residence with being female, and a set of Prefecture dummies to control for any other unobserved geographic factors. Prefectures are administrative units that govern a combination of counties in China. There are 19 prefectures in our two Provinces. To some extent, this could reflect a greater role for measurement error at the individual family level compared with the community level. It also could reflect the fact that community-level measures capture in part elements of permanent income. Since we have about a four-times-larger effect at the community level compared to the family level for mental intactness, this is unlikely to be a complete explanation. We should be better able to disentangle this possibility when panel data of the CHARLS data become available in a few years. The association of community Ln PCE with cognitive ability is much higher for Chinese women compared to Chinese men, even after we include education of respondents. The significant urban-female interaction goes away in this model indicating that this effect is better proxied by community Ln PCE. In sharp contrast to the much stronger female association with Ln PCE at the community level, we did not find any statistically significant difference of Ln family PCE between Chinese women and Chinese men not shown. These results suggest that the favoritism of men in low-income settings appears to be mainly a community rather than individual level effect. Once again the final column in Table 5 presents the IRT variant of this model and once again these results are substantively the same as in the OLS model. What is it about poor and rural communities in China and elsewhere that produces such large differences in cognitive outcomes? One reason is the restriction in educational opportunities for girls in poor communities. The education opportunity was mainly given to boys when community resources are constrained while girls work on the farm and around the house. In poor communities, when many families treat their daughters this way, this practice becomes culture and more tolerated. This we believe is why community income level has an effect independent of family income. While education is not specifically sex-segregated in China, girls were much less likely to go to school and this difference is larger in poor communities. In addition, women are less likely to take public roles in rural villages. Not until recently did women have the right to be elected as village leaders in remote areas. This lack of experience in public roles also may have reduced the opportunity to promote their cognitive functioning. Until , women only amounted to In sharp contrast, Beaman et al. Another way poor communities may impact cognition of girls favoring boys is through nuitrition. While we have no direct measure of nutrition intake of the CHARLS respondents when they were children, we do measure one of the later life markers of differential nutitrition during the chilhood years—their adult height. Mean adult height, particularly in the twentieth century, rose in many countries, especially developing countries, as economic development proceeded see Strauss and Thomas and Steckel Adult height is determined both by childhood height and the adolescent growth spurt. Childhood height is thought to be largely determined in pre-school ages, particularly before age three Martorell and Habicht Childhood height reflects health generally, not only nutritional intakes and expenditures, but some illnesses, particularly from infectious diseases, and appears to be related to adult cognitive ability Case and Paxson Table 6 displays mean adult heights of women and men in centimeters alongside female-male difference in heights in our ten groups that rank communities by their average Ln PCE. To avoid confounding cohort differences in height and shrinkage at old age, we use a subsample comprised of people aged 55— The difference in female stature from the poorest to richest set of communities is over five centimeters. In sharp contrast, there is little change for men across these community groups so the male excess height is Communities are separated into ten groups and are then ranked from lowest 1 to highest 10 based on mean community PCE. Height is measured in centimeters. The difference in heights between sexes across communities is not surprising given how traditional Chinese parents treat sons and daughters differently in educational opportunities. Because sons are more important to parents, their health and nutrition are given priority over girls. While not so dramatic as schooling, traditional Chinese parents tilt the dinner plate toward their sons when food takes a large chunk of the family resource. Daughters are taught from the beginning that their brothers are more valuable and they must not compete for food. This practice is contagious in the community. When brothers and sisters grow up witnessing this, when they marry and have children, they practice it too. Hence we see an impact of community income level independent of household incomes. Our analysis shows that there are large gender differences in cognition in China that are smaller among younger people in the CHARLS survey among those 45 years and older. The question we now ask is whether this narrowing of gender differences extends to even younger age groups as economic development in China proceeded rapidly across the last 20 years. Gender and age patterns of education are plotted in Figure 1 , as obtained from the latest Chinese One Percent Population Survey in The top part in this Figure shows the fraction of people who have not completed primary school by gender and age, while the bottom part depicts the fraction of those with college and above. Within the 45 and over age groups represented in CHARLS, the Survey shows the same large female deficit in schooling except that this deficit characterizes all provinces in China. There has been a steady erosion of the female deficit in schooling across younger birth cohorts as gender education disparites steadily decline over time until the gender differences for both primary and college or above almost converges in the youngest generation. The strong role education plays in cognitive ability predicts that these female education advances should carry with them improvements in cognitive ability of women compared to men. SAGE has the advantage of covering the complete age distribution with its cognition measures. While the main emphasis in SAGE was health, a cognitive battery also was included. While SAGE measure of episodic memory is also based on an average of immediate and delayed recall, these ten words are repeated to the respondent three times before the respondent has to repeat them. As one would expect, memory is much improved with the three repetitions and it is improved more among those whose memory is not as good. The second SAGE cognition measure is digit span, which asks respondents to repeat a series of numbers either as heard or backward. These tests measured concentration, attention, and immediate memory. Table 7a shows gender specific means of these SAGE cognitive measures alongside the female-male difference in cognitive scores. But these gender deficits decline systematically with age so that there is little difference in either word recall or digit span among those in the youngest age group, 25—34 years old. Table 7b displays American differences in memory recall the same immediate and delayed recall ten word test as CHARLS , and TICS cognitive battery, meant to capture intactness or mental status of individuals. Within age groups, American women score somewhat better in terms of memory and the TICS score does not differ significantly between genders. Like all research, our study has limitations. In addition to aging and cohort effects, another factor that could impact gender differences in cognitive ability is mortality selection effects. If cognitive ability is protective on mortality Batty et al. Because Chinese men die at a younger age than Chinese women do, mortality selection in cognition could contribute to a cognitive differential favoring men. Unfortunately, we are unable to find any credible estimates of cohort survival curves for these Chinese birth cohorts in part due to the quality of data in those days and a weaker Population Science. In addition, one would have to know the size of mortality selection by cognition by sex , which is not possible in Chinese data. Finally, direct measurement of many of the factors we think are important such as gender differences in nutrition and social and political roles are not available especially during the period when these older adults were young. In this paper, we examined the size and determinants of gender differences in cognition among those 45 and over in two provinces in China. We found large cognitive differences to the detriment of women that were mitigated but not fully explained by large gender differences in education among these generations of Chinese people. These gender differences in cognition are concentrated within and related to the poorer communities in China with the gender differences being more sensitive to community-level attributes than to family-level attributes, with economic resources measured by per capita expenditures being the primary illustration of that point. In traditional poor Chinese communities, there are strong economic incentives to favor boys at the expense of girls not only in their education outcomes, but in their nutrition and eventually their adult height. Folstein, M. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Grill, J. Aging 34, 62— Han, X. Reliability of MRI-derived measurements of human cerebral cortical thickness: Neuroimage 32, — Herlitz, A. Gender differences in episodic memory. Jack, C. MRI methods. Imaging 27, — Jenkins, A. Self-reported memory complaints: Neurology Jessen, F. Klonoff, E. Sex roles, occupational roles, and symptom-reporting: Landau, S. Amyloid deposition, hypometabolism, and longitudinal cognitive decline. Lin, K. Marked gender differences in progression of mild cognitive impairment over 8 years. McDonald, C. Regional rates of neocortical atrophy from normal aging to early Alzheimer disease. Neurology 73, — Mitchell, A. Risk of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in older people with subjective memory complaints: Acta Psychiatr. Mohs, R. Development of cognitive instruments for use in clinical trials of antidementia drugs: Alzheimer Dis. Morris, J. The clinical dementia rating CDR: Neurology 43, — Nasreddine, Z. Perrotin, A. Subjective cognition and amyloid deposition imaging: Petersen, R. Mild cognitive impairment: Neurologia 15, 93— Neurology 74, — Pfeffer, R. Measurement of functional activities in older adults in the community. Reisberg, B. Outcome over seven years of healthy adults with and without subjective cognitive impairment. Reitan, R. The relation of the trail making test to organic brain damage. Roberts, R. The incidence of MCI differs by subtype and is higher in men: Neurology 78, — Saykin, A. Older adults with cognitive complaints show brain atrophy similar to that of amnestic MCI. Neurology 67, — Scheef, L. Glucose metabolism, gray matter structure, and memory decline in subjective memory impairment. Neurology 79, — Schmidt, M. Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test: A Handbook. Los Angeles, CA: Psychological Services. Google Scholar. Seshadri, S. The lifetime risk of stroke: Stroke 37, — Stern, Y. What is cognitive reserve? Theory and research application of the reserve concept. JAMA , — Exploring the neural basis of cognitive reserve. Sundermann, E. Alzheimers Dis. Better verbal memory in women than men in MCI despite similar levels of hippocampal atrophy. Neurology 86, — Female advantage in verbal memory: Neurology 87, — Visser, P. Lancet Neurol. Wang, Y. Selective changes in white matter integrity in MCI and older adults with cognitive complaints. Acta , — Yesavage, J. Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: Aging Neurosci. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice..

In our ten-word recall measure, more than 95 percent go here respondents score 6 or less similar for men and women. However, this is potentially a more serious issue for the Gender differences and cognition among older adults measure since about 22 percent reached the highest score—19 percent for men and 25 percent for women so it is not that different between the sexes.

The estimated coefficients from the Bayesian expected posterior model are listed in the third column of Table 4 next to the corresponding OLS model in Column 2. The two models are substantively identical suggesting that ceiling effects are unlikely Gender differences and cognition among older adults be driving our gender results.

Models gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. This study assesses the gender gap in cognitive health among older adults in India and examines the extent to which individual, household and state level. literature that focuses on gender differences in old-age cognition in questionnaire for the elderly (persons with severe impairments like.

Gender Differences in Elderly With Subjective Cognitive Decline in the absence of objective cognitive deficits, which is common in older adults (Jessen et al.

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